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Granulomatous Mastitis

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis


Presentation

  • RESULTS: The average age at presentation was 38.0 years (range, 21-73 years). Seven patients were between 48 and 73 years old. Twenty-four patients presented with symptoms and three patients were asymptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No caseating necrosis or vasculitis signs were present ( Fig. 3 ).[doi.org]
Pseudotumor
  • OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign rare inflammatory pseudotumor. Bilateral involvement of IGM has been reported in a few cases. To our knowledge, this study is the largest series of bilateral cases to date.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Original research. ( 30665211 ) Aslan H...Ozen M 2018 27 Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Presenting as a Breast Pseudotumor: Case Reports with Review of the Literature. ( 30687557 ) Halim NA...Assi HI 2018 28 Granulomatous Mastitis: A Therapeutic and[malacards.org]
  • Assi, Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Presenting as a Breast Pseudotumor: Case Reports with Review of the Literature, Case Reports in Rheumatology, 10.1155/2018/4264012, 2018, (1-5), (2018).[doi.org]
Cushingoid
  • Furthermore, the side effects of steroid therapy include glucose intolerance and cushingoid features. None of our patients who received steroid therapy showed side effects.[doi.org]
Antipsychotic Agent
  • This has been demonstrated to recur even after the drug has been switched to a different class of antipsychotic agents [ 21, 22 ].[doi.org]
Skin Lesion
  • At the end of the 12th week, patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated for the regression of breast and skin lesions. Pre- and post-treatment time-intensity curve patterns (TICs) were also compared.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No other skin lesion was found. The patient's blood count was normal. Breast ultrasound images revealed a large ill-defined area with heterogeneous echoes in the right upper and lower outer quadrants, associated with increased vascularity.[doi.org]
  • Proper treatment is evident by the regression of skin lesions and parenchymal induration in nearly all patients after 2 weeks [Figure 3]. The residual lesion resolved over a period of 6–11 months.[archintsurg.org]
Delayed Wound Healing
  • In patients with delayed wound healing or recurrence after excisional biopsy, or those patients who have had an incisional biopsy only, if prolactin level is normal, reexcision and oral prednisone usage may be curative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After excision, if there is no delayed wound healing, infection, or recurrence, further therapy is not needed for IGM. Limited surgical excisions may lead to recurrence [ 16 ].[doi.org]
Furunculosis
  • It is often initially misdiagnosed as furunculosis or cellulitis. Despite the painful, scarring, and debilitating nature of the disease, patients often have a delay in accurate diagnosis and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Skin Edema
  • We also detected the frequencies of involving quadrants, retroareolar involvement, accompanying abscess, and skin edema.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Painful Breast Lump
  • In the other 2 cases of recurrence, a painful breast lump appeared after steroid therapy and was successfully treated with wide local excision.[doi.org]

Workup

  • The diagnosis was based on histological findings, after extensive workup ruled out malignancy and known causes of granulomatous mastitis. Treatment with prednisone with gradual tapering yielded a good response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Demographic, ethnic and clinical data, treatment history, and response to treatment were collected. Patients were followed up prospectively to determine the type of treatment prescribed, complete resolution of disease, and median time to resolution.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No consensus exists on the best treatment modality for the disease [ 2 - 5 ].[doi.org]

Prognosis

  • Its pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, surgical treatment, and prognosis are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis is usually good, although local recurrence has been reported.[radiopaedia.org]
  • The recurrence after one year is of undetermined prognosis, and more studies evaluating the dose, duration, medication and recurrence should be done.[sisjournal.org]

Etiology

  • A systemic or infectious etiology was excluded by the testing of tissues and fluids by staining, culture, and polymerase chain reaction methods.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • OBJECTIVE: We report twenty cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) with a discussion of epidemiology, clinical and diagnostic features, treatment and progress of this pathological entity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Future research could provide more complete descriptions of the epidemiology and etiology of IGM.[cdc.gov]
  • Definition / general Lobulocentric granulomatous inflammation Diagnosis of exclusion (excluding other granulomatous conditions) Epidemiology Rare Most common in parous women, childbearing age Usually occurs 2 years or more after pregnancy Median age in[pathologyoutlines.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose this condition to prevent unnecessary mastectomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early recognition and initiation of steroid treatment might prevent repetitive, deforming breast biopsies. (C) 2000 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.[experts.umich.edu]

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