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Growth Failure


Presentation

  • Objective and hypotheses: The objective of our study is to evaluate the presentation, investigations and catch-up growth after initiation of treatment with T 4.[abstracts.eurospe.org]
  • Introduction: Turner syndrome presents with one of the most frequent chromosomal aberrations in female, typically presented with growth retardation, ovarian insufficiency, facial dysmorphism, and numerous other somatic stigmata.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the presentation, investigations and catch-up growth after initiation of treatment with Thyroxine.[adc.bmj.com]
  • Clinical Presentation and Natural History The most common presentation of thyroiditis is thyroid gland enlargement, followed by clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism and then those found incidentally as part of routine screening or a work up for an unrelated[frontiersin.org]
Splenomegaly
  • Key words: Hemolytic anemia, Stunting, Underweight H ereditary spherocytosis (HS) is an inherited membranopathy, where hemolysis results in anemia, jaundice and splenomegaly.[indianpediatrics.net]
Short Stature
  • When examined further, causes for short stature within this group of children included familial short stature (37%), constitutional delay (27%), a combination of familial short stature and constitutional delay (17%), other medical causes (10%), idiopathic[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Short stature may be a normal expression of a person's genetic potential and, therefore, the growth rate is normal. Short stature may also be a result of a condition that causes growth failure and a growth rate that is slower than normal.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Clinical Presentation Short stature is the defining characteristic, naturally, but defining short stature can be challenging.[oncohemakey.com]
  • Children with short stature in whom no specific cause is identified may be diagnosed with idiopathic short stature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Short Stature in Children
  • Key Points to Remember Key Points to Remember Short stature describes children who are in the third percentile or less on the pediatric growth chart. Most of the time, there is no medical cause for short stature.[rileychildrens.org]
  • Clinical science Summary Short stature in children is defined as a height that is at least two standard deviations below the mean for children of the same age and sex.[amboss.com]
  • Prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) and short stature in children born SGA who qualify for growth hormone treatment at 3 years of age: population-based study.[scielo.br]
  • Isolated central hypothyroidism is an uncommon disorder associated with short stature in children presenting with low free T4 and normal or low serum TSH concentrations without other evidence of pituitary disease.[intechopen.com]
Amyloidosis
  • […] discrepancy or hip contracture, significant leg length discrepancy or growth abnormality of a bone segment, striae rubrae, subcutaneous atrophy resulting from intraarticular corticosteroid injection, growth failure, [7] pubertal delay, diabetes mellitus and amyloidosis[legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Broad Chest
Splenectomy
  • Hereditary spherocytosis in children: Profile and post-splenectomy outcome. Indian Pediatr. 2014;51:139-41. 5. Schilling RF. Risks and benefits of splenectomy versus no splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis - a personal view.[indianpediatrics.net]
Delayed Wound Healing
  • wound healing 8-Impaired intellectual development 9-Altered behavior 11 CLASSIFICATION OF MALNUTRITION 12 marasmus Severe protein-energy malnutrition in children usually leads to marasmus, with a weight for height more than 3 standard deviations below[slideplayer.com]
Hyperkeratosis
  • In addition, there may be: • a ‘flaky-paint’ skin rash with hyperkeratosis (thickened skin) and desquamation • a distended abdomen and enlarged liver (usually due to fatty infiltration) • angular stomatitis • hair which is sparse and depigmented 15 diarrhoea[slideplayer.com]
Short Forearm
  • […] lower legs, mesomelia) [ 6, 48 ], although in hypochondroplasia short forearms have been reported [ 50 ].[karger.com]

Workup

  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the etiology, the role of pubertal timing and most useful criteria for diagnostic workup in adolescents with growth failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If clinically indicated, a basic workup may be obtained ( Table 2 ).[cps.ca]
  • Previous growth points The most useful part of a workup for growth failure is observing the growth pattern. Previous growth data may be obtained from physicians' offices, schools, or marks that have been kept on a door or wall at home.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Should blood gas analysis be part of the diagnostic workup of short children? Auxological data and blood gas analysis in children with renal tubular acidosis. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;74(5):351–7. Brain CE, Savage MO.[karger.com]

Treatment

  • Institution of treatment with thyroxine (T 4 ) results in catch-up growth. However, treatment commenced in pubertal period may result in loss of adult height in cases with longstanding severe hypothyroidism.[abstracts.eurospe.org]
  • […] the start of treatment ( 22 ).[ec.bioscientifica.com]
  • […] in the absence of alternative treatment options.[ace-hta.gov.sg]
  • Institution of treatment with thyroxine results in catch-up growth. However, treatment commenced in pubertal period may result in loss of adult height in cases with longstanding severe untreated hypothyroidism.[adc.bmj.com]
  • Patients who received the combination treatment over five years demonstrated “twice the growth anticipated from standards of untreated patients.” 5 A comparison of GH and GH oxandrolone treatments with untreated control standards indicates that Saizen[hcp.merckgroup.com]

Prognosis

  • Early diagnosis is essential to ensure better nutritional status and growth, potentially associated with better respiratory function and prognosis.[degruyter.com]
  • What are the treatment options and prognosis of this disorder? View Abstract Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service.[pmj.bmj.com]
  • Making the genetic diagnosis of a CDKL5 mutation in a child with early onset epileptic encephalopathy provides a precise diagnosis that allows for counseling about prognosis and genetic counseling.[content.iospress.com]
  • What Is the Prognosis for Growth Failure in Children? Early therapeutic intervention is important. Therapy should begin before the child's growth process is complete.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • The aims of this review are try to explain etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms of growth failure in CF children and clarify their role in the disease morbidity and in clinical outcome, especially in relation to progressive decline of pulmonary function[degruyter.com]
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the etiology, the role of pubertal timing and most useful criteria for diagnostic workup in adolescents with growth failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This paper will (a) familiarize otolaryngologists with the definition, prevalence, and etiology of growth failure and (b) review the published findings that examine the inter-relationship among sleep disordered breathing, growth failure, and adentonsillar[semanticscholar.org]
  • Different factors have been involved in the etiology of postnatal growth failure in preterm infants, but despite research efforts regarding clinical management, growth failure rates continue to increase.[gutmicrobiotaforhealth.com]
  • Numerous etiologies for this condition are contained in this category, including fetal alcohol syndrome and placental insufficiency syndromes.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer. Nat Rev Urol 210;7:245-257 3 Levi F, Ferlay J, Galeone C, et al. The changing pattern of kidney cancer incidence and mortality in Europe.[ipsen.com]
  • Summary Epidemiology The syndrome is extremely rare and only four cases have been reported in the literature so far. Clinical description Addition clinical features include microcephaly, adiposity, and insulin resistance.[orpha.net]
  • Epidemiology [ 2, 3 ] Infants commonly show some weight faltering in the first two years of life but it may also affect older children.[patient.info]
  • References: [9] Treatment Management depends on the underlying cause : References: [9] Skeletal dysplasias Achondroplasia Etiology Epidemiology Most common type of skeletal dysplasia and disproportionate short stature ( 1:40,000 children worldwide affected[amboss.com]
  • Epidemiology The global prevalence of stunting in children younger than 5 years was estimated to be 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24–28%) for 2011, the most recent data (UNICEF-WHO-The World Bank, 2012).[de.slideshare.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiologic basis for growth failure in children with ichthyosis: an evaluation of cutaneous ultrastructure, epidermal permeability barrier function, and energy expenditure.[firstskinfoundation.org]
  • Program Description This is a two-hour training session that includes a written pre-test of knowledge of age-appropriate growth velocity and accurate linear growth measurement, along with a PowerPoint presentation and handouts reviewing the physiology and pathophysiology[aannet.org]
  • According to pathophysiologically, growth failure is a primary abnormality.[medcraveonline.com]
  • References: [1] [2] Causes of short stature Causes of short stature Pathophysiology Specific features Nonpathological Familial short stature Inheritance of parental short stature Normal development; skeletal age consistent with chronological age Constitutional[amboss.com]
  • Theos A, Korf BR (2006) Pathophysiology of neurofibromatosis type 1. Ann Intern Med 144: 842-849.[aclr.com.es]

Prevention

  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases of severe primary hypothyroidism with prolonged elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone and pituitary pseudotumor, gradual replacement of thyroid hormone with slowly escalating doses of levothyroxine may be beneficial to prevent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Describe two evidence-based nutritional interventions to prevent post-natal growth failure. 2. Identify one long-term risk associated with growth failure. 3. Name one component in maternal breastmilk that helps to facilitate growth. 4.[engage-grow-thrive.teachable.com]
  • "Our identification of the distinct features within the microbiome and metabolism associated with growth failure might point to new ways to predict, prevent and treat this pervasive problem among preterm infants," says one of the senior authors Patrick[sciencedaily.com]

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