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Haemophilus


Presentation

  • METHODS: A 22-day old baby presented with excessive crying, refusal of feed, progressive abdominal distension, fever and vomiting. Besides clinical assessment, body fluids were cultured.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The following case report describes a 67-year-old man who presented with pain and swelling of the right side of the face. Fine needle aspiration suggested a parotid gland abscess. Microbiological studies identified H.paraphrophilus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All cases had different symptoms and presentations. Our study suggests that a testing scheme that includes reliable PCR assays and standard microbiological methods should be used in order to improve H. haemolyticus identification.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present that this bacterium is associated with viral load and mucosal CXCL8 responses, both which are involved in RSV disease pathogenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No reports of infection with H. ducreyi from Indonesia could be found in literature, but this case indicates that H. ducreyi is present in at least one of the northeastern islands of Indonesia, which is important for local healthcare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Recurrent Otitis Media
  • H. influenzae biofilms are present in the middle ears of children with chronic and recurrent otitis media. Biofilms are more resistant to host clearance mechanisms and more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic bacteria.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • Nasopharyngeal colonization with nontypable Haemophilus influenzae and recurrent otitis media. J Infect Dis. 1994; 170 :862. [ PubMed : 7930728 ] Harrison LH, de Silva GA, Pittman M. et al.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • Fine needle aspiration suggested a parotid gland abscess. Microbiological studies identified H.paraphrophilus. This is the first time a parotid abscess has been found to be caused by this organism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] the relation between (i) the microbiome of the upper respiratory tract, (ii) viral load, and (iii) host mucosal inflammation during an RSV infection, nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles of RSV infected infants ( RESULTS: Viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • H. influenzae 24 hours H. influenzae ATCC * 10211 protocols • Blood culture • Bronchoalveolar lavage • Cerebro Spinal Fluid • Endotracheal Aspiration • Fecal specimen • Genital specimen • Perinatal infection specimen • Screening swab • Sputum • Upper[biomerieux-culturemedia.com]
  • Finegold Bacteriology of expectorated sputum with quantitative culture and wash technique compared to transtracheal aspirates [4.] M. Whitby, K.G. Kristinsson, M.[archbronconeumol.org]
  • Other investigations will depend on the site of infection - eg, echocardiogram if pericarditis is suspected, joint aspiration for septic arthritis.[patient.info]
Nausea
  • […] depending on the specific infection: For otitis media (middle ear infection) unusual irritability difficulty sleeping or staying asleep tugging or pulling at one or both ears fever fluid draining from ear(s) loss of balance hearing difficulties ear pain nausea[childrenshospital.org]
  • Diarrhea, stomach upset and nausea are side effects of the cephalosporins. Fluoroquinolones Drug resistance is an ever-present problem in the treatment of bacterial infections.[livestrong.com]
  • Meningitis - fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness Epiglottitis - difficulty breathing and swallowing, pale colour and fever Pneumonia - shortness of breath, fever, lack of energy, loss of appetite, headache, chest pain and cough[health.nsw.gov.au]
Abdominal Distension
  • METHODS: A 22-day old baby presented with excessive crying, refusal of feed, progressive abdominal distension, fever and vomiting. Besides clinical assessment, body fluids were cultured.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • RESULTS: The baby had tachypnoea (90 bpm), tachycardia (182 bpm), and tympanitic and hypoactive abdomen. The musculoskeletal and central nervous systems appeared clinically normal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chancre
  • H. ducreyi causes a venereal disease in humans known as chancroid, or soft chancre.[britannica.com]
  • Chancres due to H ducreyi are tender, somewhat irregular, and slightly indurated; they may be confused with primary syphilitic chancres, traumatic lesions of the penis (especially with bacterial superinfection), fixed drug eruptions, or ulcerated herpetic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Eruptions
  • Presentations include meningitis, pneumonia, respiratory distress, scalp abscess, conjunctivitis and vesicular eruption. Investigations [ 5 ] Gram stain: small, Gram-negative, pleomorphic coccobacilli with polymorphonuclear cells.[patient.info]
  • Chancres due to H ducreyi are tender, somewhat irregular, and slightly indurated; they may be confused with primary syphilitic chancres, traumatic lesions of the penis (especially with bacterial superinfection), fixed drug eruptions, or ulcerated herpetic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Skin Lesion
  • Brazilian Purpuric Fever In the past few years, a syndrome of fulminating illness with substantial mortality characterized by nausea, vomiting, hemorrhagic skin lesions, fever, prostration, and shock has been recognized under the name Brazilian purpuric[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Facial Pain
  • Common symptoms include facial pain, headache, and fever following previous upper respiratory viral illness. On physical examination, persons with Read More[britannica.com]
  • Patients experience purulent nasal discharge, headache, and facial pain. Bacteremia and invasive infections.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • Patients experience purulent nasal discharge, headache, and facial pain. Bacteremia and invasive infections .[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Stroke
  • Endocarditis due to H parainfluenzae tends to be associated with large vegetations that embolize to large arteries such as femoral or carotid, causing a limb to turn blue and cool, or producing a stroke.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • All strains of H. influenzae genogroup b were isolated during routine urine culture workups at the VA Puget Sound Health Care System Clinical Microbiology Laboratory or the Houston VA Medical Center.[jcm.asm.org]
Haemophilus Parainfluenzae
  • parainfluenzae Rivers, 1922 According To NZFUNGI (2012-) New Zealand Fungi Names - Name Based Concepts Subordinate Taxon Concept Full Name Haemophilus parainfluenzae Rivers, 1922 According To NZIB (2012-) New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity Name Based[nzor.org.nz]
  • ., 1917 Species Haemophilus paracuniculus Targowski and Targowski, 1984 Species Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Pittman, 1953 Species Haemophilus parainfluenzae Rivers, 1922 Species Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus Zinnemann et al., 1971 Species Haemophilus[itis.gov]
  • Haemophilus parainfluenzae pneumonia Statistics from Altmetric.com Haemophilus parainfluenzae pneumonia Respiratory tract infections remain a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and pneumonia in particular is the leading cause of death due[thorax.bmj.com]
  • Seven cases of adult Haemophilus parainfluenzae infections diagnosed by positive blood cultures are compared with cases previously reported in the English literature.[jamanetwork.com]
  • ., 1917 Species Haemophilus paracuniculus Targowski & Targowski, 1984 Species Haemophilus paragallinarum Biberstein & White, 1969 Species Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Pittman, 1953 Species Haemophilus parainfluenzae Rivers, 1922 Species Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus[irmng.org]
Aggregatibacter Aphrophilus
  • Other Haemophilus strains ( H. aphrophilus, now called Aggregatibacter aphrophilus ) occasional cause of infection in HIV. CLINICAL Up to 80% may be carriers of non-typeable H. influenzae .[hopkinsguides.com]

Treatment

  • Back in the Netherlands, a painful ulcer developed at the same body location, and despite treatment with flucloxacillin, his complaints worsened.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Rifampin, an antibiotic, is used in some circumstances as preventive treatment for persons who have been exposed to Hib disease.[health.ny.gov]
  • Some people with certain medical conditions have an increased risk of infection, for example, those without a functioning spleen, and those who are immune compromised from a disease or treatment of a disease.[immune.org.nz]
  • The baby responded well to treatment with ceftriaxone and gentamycin. Neurological examination has remained normal after discharge for up to three months at follow-up visit.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.[healthychildren.org]

Prognosis

  • Treatment and prognosis Mortality rates in patients with H. influenzae pneumonia have been reported as ranging around 10-42% Promoted articles (advertising)[radiopaedia.org]
  • Prognosis The sequelae following Hib meningitis may include deafness, convulsions and intellectual impairment.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Vishniakova LA, Putov NV (1990) The etiology of acute pneumonia. Ter Arkh 62: 15-18. Sinopalnikov A, Romanov AG (2006) An infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulmonology 1.[omicsonline.org]
  • An etiologic diagnosis requires tympanocentesis, an invasive procedure not performed routinely in clinical practice. Therefore, treatment of otitis media is empirical.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • This periodontopathogenic genus with high percentage may also play an important role in the etiology of OLP.[nature.com]

Epidemiology

  • An important epidemiologic aspect of Hib disease is the risk that it poses to contacts of the affected person.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology Haemophilus organisms spread directly among individuals without a known contribution from environmental sources or animal reservoirs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • We therefore studied the effect of the nasopharyngeal microbiome on viral load and mucosal cytokine responses, two important factors influencing the pathophysiology of RSV disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] settings where the test may be helpful Assessing a patient's immunological (IgG) response to Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) vaccine Assessing immunity against HIB Aiding in the evaluation of immunodeficiency Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology[mayomedicallaboratories.com]

Prevention

  • How can Hib disease be prevented? The best way to prevent Hib disease is to ensure all children are vaccinated according to the National Immunisation Program Schedule (see below).[healthywa.wa.gov.au]
  • What can be done to prevent the spread of Hib disease? The single most important preventive measure is to maintain a high level of immunization in the community.[health.ny.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: There is the need to provide serological and molecular facilities for typing Nigerian Haemophilus infulenzae strain(s) to enhance the development of appropriate vaccine that will be most suitable for prevention of infection due to this organism[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention: Immunization of all infants prevents H. influenzae type b infection. Respiratory and hand hygiene prevent transmission. Recent Washington trends: 4 to 13 cases (due to all serotypes) are reported annually.[doh.wa.gov]
  • There is a vaccine to prevent Hib disease. All children younger than 5 years of age should be vaccinated with the Hib vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epiglottitis (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)[medlineplus.gov]

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