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  • METHODS: A 4-year prospective study of delusional halitosis patients managed with a 3-step 'Stop-gap protocol' is presented in this paper, to demonstrate our experience in applying the 'Stop-gap protocol'.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate symptoms, signs and risk factors associated with halitosis in healthy children and to present a model based on the clinical data that predicts the presence of halitosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: The present study provides for the first time the basis for anti-halitosis activity of SE. Copyright 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIMS: The aims of this study were to describe the pattern of presentation of halitosis and to evaluate the success rate following routine dental intervention irrespective of the type of halitosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIMS: The present study was conducted to compare the effects of oil pulling with rice bran oil, oil pulling with sesame oil, and oil pulling with chlorhexidine mouth rinsing on reducing halitosis among pregnant women.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The underlying cause is most commonly poor dental hygiene, however a range of non-dental etiologies are less commonly responsible, including respiratory tract infection , liver failure, and renal disease, as well as the presence of a pharyngeal pouch[radiopaedia.org]
  • Odour detectable from the mouth, but not from the nose, is likely to be of oral or pharyngeal origin. Odour from the nose alone is likely to be coming from the nose or sinuses.[patient.info]
  • […] renal failure Bowel obstruction Bronchiectasis Chronic kidney failure Esophageal cancer Gastric carcinoma Gastrojejunocolic fistula Hepatic encephalopathy Diabetic ketoacidosis Lung infection or abscess Ozena, or atrophic rhinitis Periodontal disease Pharyngitis[nlm.nih.gov]
  • ., diabetes, Sjogren's syndrome, sinus infection, throat infections (tonsillitis or pharyngitis), local infections in the respiratory tract, and liver or kidney disease.[sharecare.com]
  • HALITOSIS : a condition of having fetid breath See halitosis defined for English-language learners » Origin of HALITOSIS New Latin, from Latin halitus breath, from halare to breathe — more at exhale First Known Use: 1874 Rhymes with HALITOSIS brucellosis, cyanosis[web.archive.org]
Dental Abscess
  • All of the following can give you bad breath: cavities , dental abscesses , impacted teeth , gingivitis or other forms of gum disease . Each of these can be easily remedied by your friendly neighborhood dentist.[1800dentist.com]
  • In case of a dental abscess, endodontic or surgical treatment may be needed. TIPS FOR PREVENTING HALITOSIS: Children should brush their teeth three times a day with a soft-bristled toothbrush.[dentalresource.org]
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients, at the permanent dentition stage aged 12 to 18 years, who had Angle Class I malocclusion with mild-to-moderate crowding were randomly selected.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] halitosis defined for English-language learners » Origin of HALITOSIS New Latin, from Latin halitus breath, from halare to breathe — more at exhale First Known Use: 1874 Rhymes with HALITOSIS brucellosis, cyanosis, dermatosis, diagnosis, heterosis, keratosis[web.archive.org]
Low Self-Esteem
  • It can significantly impair quality of life, social interactions, lead directly to depression,low self-esteem or other mood disorders, therefore it is important to properly identify, treat and continue research on halitosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Kidney Failure
  • In addition, people with chronic kidney failure may have breath that smells "fishy" or like ammonia, according to the NIH.[livescience.com]
  • Less common causes include DIABETES, BRONCHIECTASIS, lung abscess, atrophy of the nose lining (atrophic rhinitis), kidney failure or liver failure.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Here's what certain types of bad breath can mean: Sweet and fruity: Diabetes Ammonia/urine: Kidney failure Rotten eggs: Cirrhosis of the liver [pagebreak] Sweeten It Up What to do about your bad breath? Follow these simple steps: 1.[prevention.com]
  • Kidney failure: If your kidneys aren’t filtering wastes properly, it can cause your breath to smell like urine or ammonia.[dummies.com]
  • The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or "fishy") in people with chronic kidney failure.[nlm.nih.gov]


Staphylococcus Aureus
  • aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Haemophilus Parainfluenzae
  • In the control group, Aggregatibacter (OTU id 4363066), Haemophilus, Haemophilus parainfluenza (H. parainfluenza), Moryella, Oribacterium, Prevotella, several Streptococcus, Rothia dentocariosa (R. dentocariosa) and OTU from Gemellaceae were significantly[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Capnocytophaga Ochracea
  • ., Selenomonas noxia , and Capnocytophaga ochracea . We suggest that these OTUs are candidate halitosis-associated pathogens. Functional profiles were predicted using PICRUSt, and nine level-3 KEGG Orthology groups were significantly different.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Forty-six individuals aged 12 to 19 years were randomly allocated: Group 1 - treatment with photodynamic therapy; Group 2 - treatment with a tongue scraper and Group 3 - treatment with a tongue scraper and photodynamic therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges, compared with placebo was tested.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Post-treatment evaluations will be conducted at one hour and 24 hours after treatment. The statistical analysis will include the Shapiro-Wilk test for the determination of the distribution of the data.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Management may include periodontal or restorative treatment or both, as well as simple treatment measures such as instruction in oral hygiene, tongue cleaning and mouth rinsing.[cda-adc.ca]


  • Prognosis If caries is not treated, it likely will cause the tooth to decay significantly. Eventually, uncontrolled decay may destroy the tooth. Having caries increases your risk of more caries for several reasons: Caries is caused by bacteria.[colgate.com]
  • […] hypothesis , prothesis • crisis , Isis •proboscis • synopsis • apotheosis , chlorosis, cirrhosis, diagnosis, halitosis, hypnosis, kenosis, meiosis, metempsychosis, misdiagnosis, mononucleosis, myxomatosis, necrosis, neurosis, osmosis, osteoporosis, prognosis[encyclopedia.com]
  • […] synthesis • hypothesis, prothesis • crisis, Isis •proboscis • synopsis • apotheosis, chlorosis, cirrhosis, diagnosis, halitosis, hypnosis, kenosis, meiosis, metempsychosis, misdiagnosis, mononucleosis, myxomatosis, necrosis, neurosis, osmosis, osteoporosis, prognosis[encyclopedia.com]
  • It can be suggested that self-applied organoleptic scoring (self-assessment) should be evaluated to monitorise prognosis. Organoleptic examination is problematic, 132 and objectionable to both dentists and to patients.[doi.org]


  • Halitosis secondary to pathology of the palatine tonsils is considered airway (type 2) halitosis in the etiologic classification.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is important that dentists and hygienists are able to appropriately diagnose halitosis and understand the various etiologies that cause this condition before deciding on an individualized treatment plan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Keywords: Diagnosis, etiology, halitosis, management How to cite this article: Kapoor U, Sharma G, Juneja M, Nagpal A. Halitosis: Current concepts on etiology, diagnosis and management.[doi.org]
  • CONCLUSION: Halitosis is multifaceted in etiology. A simple easy-to-use protocol helps in an extensive yet rapid evaluation of halitosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Halitosis is a common condition, whose main etiology does not respond to diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Epiphrenic diverticula are a rare cause of this manifestation, thus they are not frequent and they are usually asymptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered from 4,763 participants who had answered questions on subjective halitosis and psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress and personality traits) in the study on the epidemiology of psychological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIM: No epidemiological data on halitosis are available from Italy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Drugs The following may also cause halitosis: [ 5 ] Solvent misuse Betel Chloral hydrate Nitrites and nitrates Dimethyl sulfoxide Disulfiram Some cytotoxic agents Phenothiazines Amfetamines Epidemiology There are no reliable estimates of prevalence, although[patient.info]
  • Although precise epidemiological data are missing, some studies have suggested that bad breath may rank only behind dental cavities and gum disease as the most frequent reasons for visits to the dentist.[livescience.com]
  • Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing and Walter Loesche, Halitosis: an overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management, Brazilian Oral Research, 25, 5, (466), (2011).[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • PURPOSE: To clarify the antimicrobial efficacy of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) by testing their impact on the growth of seven bacterial strains known to be involved in the pathophysiology of both peri-implant disease and halitosis-Staphylococcus[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The exact pathophysiological mechanism of halitosis is not clear, and in many patients the etiology is an enigma. We followed three couples in which one member or both had halitosis. All the subjects had evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • H pylori infection might be important in the pathophysiological mechanism of halitosis, and H pylori eradication therapy may be helpful in those patients with refractory halitosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of this mechanism is unclear, and the relative importance of this alongside other causes of extraoral halitosis is debated.[doi.org]
  • Pathophysiology Halitosis most often results from fermentation of food particles by anaerobic gram-negative bacteria in the mouth, producing volatile sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan.[merckmanuals.com]


  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Given the high prevalence of halitosis and its complex etiology, dental professionals should be aware of their roles in halitosis prevention and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland, Freiburgstrasse 7, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is significant to highlight the necessity of an interdisciplinary method for the treatment of halitosis to prevent misdiagnosis or unnecessary treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Preventing bad breath The best way to prevent bad breath is to have a good plaque removal regime . Ensuring you brush and clean in-between your teeth at least twice a day and visiting the dentist regularly will help.[diabetes.co.uk]
  • Lack of evidence currently prevents firm conclusions, but the following is recommended: (1) Use reliable methods for halitosis diagnosis and confirmation of tonsillar etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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