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Hallucinogen

Agents Psychedelic


Presentation

  • Information on each class is presented in turn, tracing relevant historical insights, highlighting similarities and differences between the classes from the molecular to the behavioral level, and presenting the most up-to-date information on clinically[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Crying
  • The battle cry of the hippy movement was turn on, tune in, drop out…telling people don’t worry about it, get high. “ – from “ Weird Scenes Inside the Canyon: Laurel Canyon, Covert Ops & the Dark Heart of the Hippy Dream ” by Dave McGowan Burning Man We[veilofreality.com]
Noncompliance
  • We found that hallucinogen use predicted a reduced likelihood of supervision failure (e.g. noncompliance with legal requirements including alcohol and other drug use) while controlling for an array of potential confounding factors (odds ratio (OR) 0.60[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chronic Infection
  • Abstract - Figures Preview Abstract Antigen-specific CD8 T cells are central to the control of chronic infections and cancer, but persistent antigen stimulation results in T cell exhaustion.[doi.org]
Tachycardia
  • […] dream-like state slowed passage of time laughter a mixing of senses (synesthesia, such as "seeing a sound" or "hearing colors") pupil dilation Side effects or risks Side effects or risks of mescaline use may include: anxiety, fear racing heart beat (tachycardia[drugs.com]
  • Sympathomimetic effects predominate, with hypertension and tachycardia being quite common. Hyperthermia is a common and occasionally serious complication.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • These tropane alkaloids are poisonous and can cause death due to tachycardia-induced heart failure and hyperthermia even in small doses.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Two or more of the following signs develop: pupillary dilation, tachycardia, sweating, palpitations, blurring of vision, tremors, or incoordination.[mentalhealth.com]
Tinnitus
  • Individual or family histories of anxiety and pre-drug use complaints of tinnitus, eye floaters, and concentration problems may predict vulnerability for HPPD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There's literally dozens of problems that people have reported from dissociative use, some of the uglier ones include bad allergic reactions, peripheral neuropathy, impotence, tinnitus (persistent ringing in your ears), and "acting like a narcissistic[erowid.org]
Visual Hallucination
  • Abuse results in rapid onset and short-lasting effects that include visual hallucinations and motor-function impairment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Organic brain disorder, eg brain tumour, delirium, dementia, visual hallucination due to epileptic activity. Visual hallucinations due to another drug and/or associated medical condition, eg Parkinson's disease and L-dopa. Factitious illness.[patient.info]
  • Mescaline leads to rich visual hallucinations which were important to the native peyote cults. It has an effect that is similar to LSD or psilocybin (magic mushrooms), other hallucinogenic drugs.[drugs.com]
  • DXM’s clinical effects at doses higher than recommended include a euphoric-like effect, alteration of perception, and visual hallucinations.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Panic Attacks
  • Both patients discontinued SCS use abruptly after suffering from a panic attack under the influence of SCS. Despite cessation of SCS, both patients continued to suffer from HPPD which was accompanied by significant anxiety.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Psychosis, panic attacks and dangerous accidents are all possible risks. What is it? Hallucinogens are drugs that distort the way you perceive reality.[abovetheinfluence.com]
  • Unfortunately, PCP can cause serious mood disturbances and can cause major anxiety or panic attacks in those who abuse the drug.[hallucinogens.com]
  • These effects can last for a number of days after use and may include: depression anxiety panic attacks psychosis Long-term effects The most common long-term effect of hallucinogen is the 'flashback'.[mydr.com.au]
Aggressive Behavior
  • The patient may need to be sedated for hostile or aggressive behavior.[recoveryconnection.com]
  • behavior Violent acts Ecstasy/MDMA OTHER NAMES Methylenedioxymethamephetamine; E; X; XTC; MDMA; Adam; Hug Drug; Love Drug; Essence HOW USED Orally CATEGORY Stimulant GENERAL INFORMATION Methylenedioxymethamephetamine, better known as MDMA or Ecstasy,[yessafechoices.org]
  • behavior Difficulty focusing Poor memory Drug cravings Paranoia When a person is partying with Ecstasy, he may take more of the drug every three to six hours to keep the high going as the effects begin to wear off.[narconon.org]
  • Google Scholar SAGE Journals ISI Hoaken, PNS, Stewart, SH ( 2003 ) Drugs of abuse and the elicitation of human aggressive behavior . Addict Behav 28: 1533 – 1554 .[doi.org]
Perceptual Distortion
  • It is described as a re-experiencing of some perceptual distortions induced while intoxicated and suggested to subsequently cause functional impairment or anxiety.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mescaline's perceptual distortions typically affect a person's thinking process, time awareness and self-awareness.[study.com]
  • These substances create euphoria and have psychedelic effects (visual and auditory perceptual distortions).[mentalhelp.net]
  • It is now well established that the activation of KORs induces a large number of behavioral effects that include analgesia, sedation, and perceptual distortions.[doi.org]
Inappropriate Laughter
  • This is often referred to as “skittling,” “robotripping,” or “dexing,” the DEA Inappropriate laughter, feelings of floating, altered sense of touch and hearing, hallucinations, paranoia, and agitation are common consequences of DXM abuse, as are slurred[solutions-recovery.com]
Confusion
  • Effects include rapidly changing feelings, hallucinations, confusion, anxiety and loss of control. Includes substances such as LSD , PCP and ecstasy .[yessafechoices.org]
  • Confusion and fear may persist. This is known as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD). Users may continue to have feelings of confusion and distorted reality long after the trip has ended without having to take any more of the drug.[addictionresource.com]
  • Confusion, heart problems, seizures and hallucinations often result. Appearance: May be sold as a white or off-white powder in a small plastic bag, labeled “not for food, drug, household or cosmetic use.”[narconon.org]
  • The user may experience panic, confusion, suspiciousness, anxiety, helplessness, and loss of control. Two long-term effects are psychosis and hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD).[addictionrecov.org]
  • Deliriants induce a sense of delirium (an intense state of confusion). The delirium is exemplified by the user being in a stupor (a zombie like state) and experiencing great confusion. The drugs that typify deliriants are Dramamine and Benadryl.[addictionhope.com]
Agitation
  • […] it tells you that the dangers are real: "Ingestion of Angel's Trumpet flowers or a tea brewed from them results in an alkaloid-induced central nervous system anticholinergic syndrome characterized by symptoms such as fever, delirium, hallucinations, agitation[curiosity.com]
  • […] blurred vision; sense of relaxation and well-being; hallucinations and distorted perception, including visual, auditory, body, time and space; disorganised thoughts, confusion and difficulty concentrating, thinking or maintaining attention; anxiety, agitation[mydr.com.au]
  • IMMEDIATE SYMPTOMS Flushing and heavy perspiration Nausea Drooling Confusion Fluttering and uncontrolled eye movement Blurred vision Loss of coordination Rapid heart rate Altered states of consciousness Stupor Elevated blood pressure and body temperature Agitation[yessafechoices.org]
  • The effects of DMT come on quickly and last about 30-45 minutes, the DEA Depersonalization, significant visual hallucinations, distorted body image and sense of time, as well as agitation, seizures, heightened blood pressure and heart rate, dizziness,[solutions-recovery.com]
  • It was soon withdrawn from use because of severe adverse psychological reactions following its use; severe dysphoria, agitation, and psychotic behavior were all noted routinely.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sensory Distortion
  • distortion, delusion, and depersonalization; increased pulse, temperature, and blood pressure; and dilation of the pupils.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Some physical side effects include: Analgesia (inability to feel pain) Hyperthermia Hypothermia Respiratory failure Memory loss Blurred vision Dilated pupils Speech impairment Impaired motor skills Seizures Rapid breathing Sensory distortions Illogical[addictionhope.com]
  • Erratic behaviors, episodes of violence and aggression, unnatural strength, disorganized thoughts, impaired motor coordination, blurred vision, feelings of invincibility, sensory distortions, difficulties breathing, increased blood pressure and heart[solutions-recovery.com]

Workup

Amyloid Plaque
  • Read More Full Text HTML Download PDF Figure 1: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal death, which is usually correlated with the appearance of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). (a) The Aβ pathway leading...[doi.org]
Neurofibrillary Tangle
  • Read More Full Text HTML Download PDF Figure 1: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal death, which is usually correlated with the appearance of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). (a) The Aβ pathway leading...[doi.org]

Treatment

  • Title: Studying the Effects of Classic Hallucinogens in the Treatment of Alcoholism: Rationale, Methodology, and Current Research with Psilocybin VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 1 Author(s): Michael P.[eurekaselect.com]
  • There are case reports, but no randomized controlled trials, of successful treatment with neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, and clonidine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Studying the Effects of Classic Hallucinogens in the Treatment of Alcoholism: Rationale, Methodology, and Current Research with Psilocybin Author(s): Michael P.[web.archive.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis [ 7 ] Symptoms should settle over a period of months and do seem to respond to pharmacotherapy in the majority of cases. However, some patients may experience distressing symptoms that last for years or are irreversible.[patient.info]
  • Prognosis Because hallucinogens are not physically addictive, many people are able to stop using these drugs successfully.[minddisorders.com]

Etiology

  • Although it may be difficult to collect large samples of HPPD cases, further studies are critically needed to augment the meager data presently available regarding the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of HPPD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology and phenomenology: II. clinical syndromes. J Ment Sci 1954; 100: 838–72 Google Scholar 43. Vallar G, Perani D. The anatomy of unilateral neglect after right-hemisphere stroke lesions: a clinical/CT-scan correlation study in man.[doi.org]
  • Therapy: randomized controlled trial Drug Therapy: multicenter randomized controlled trial Drug Therapy: placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial Economic Impact Education Electroconvulsive Therapy Embryology Enzymology Epidemiology Escitalopram Etiology[mentalhealth.com]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract This paper examines selected epidemiologic issues raised by the consideration of 28 stimulant-hallucinogen drugs for international drug control.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology It is exceedingly uncommon on a population basis and probably still extremely rare in the population that has taken hallucinogenic drugs. No reliable prevalence data are available.[patient.info]
  • Griffiths , Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics , Pharmacology & Therapeutics , 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.11.010 , (2018) .[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Effective strategies to prevent and treat AD remain elusive despite major efforts to understand its basic biology and clinical pathophysiology. Significant investments in therapeutic ...[doi.org]
  • Given an emerging recognition of the importance of alterations in glutamatergic transmission in the actions of both psychedelic hallucinogens an NMDA antagonists, this review concludes with of implications for the pathophysiology and therapy of schizophrenia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • The effects of i.v. salvinorin A were not prevented by a small dose of the opioid antagonist nalmefene (0.01 mg/kg s.c.) but were prevented by a larger dose of nalmefene (0.1 mg/kg); the latter nalmefene dose is sufficient to produce kappa-antagonist[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We have compiled the scientific information in this report to inform readers and hopefully prevent the use of these drugs. Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse[nida.nih.gov]
  • SAMHSA has created the Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit to offer strategies to health care providers, communities, and local governments for developing practices and policies to help prevent opioid-related overdoses and deaths.[samhsa.gov]
  • Effective strategies to prevent and treat AD remain elusive despite major efforts to understand its basic biology and clinical pathophysiology. Significant investments in therapeutic ...[doi.org]

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