Early signs and symptoms of hallux rigidus include the following :
- Discomfort experienced while walking, bending or standing
- There is pain and stiffness which gets aggravated during cold weather conditions 
- Development of swelling along with inflammation in the affected joint
In addition to these, affected individuals would also experience certain additional symptoms as the condition progresses to more advance stages. These include:
Entire Body System
GROWING POINTS: To assess whether benefits from surgery, validated and standardized measures should be used to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing standard surgical procedures. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Complications included 1 superficial wound infection, and revision was performed in 5 feet (16%) because of loosening, sinkage, subluxation, pain, or fractured prosthesis. Implant survival was 92% at 5 years, 85% at 7 years, and 68% at 9 years. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
There were 6 delayed unions and 7 wound infections in the fusions. Patient satisfaction was also higher in the fusion group. Raikin (2007) compared 21 BioPro hemiarthroplasties with a comparable historical control series of 27 fusions. [foothyperbook.com]
immobilization Other Gouty arthritis Septic arthritis Neuromuscular derived muscle imbalance affecting first ray Treatment Stage 1, 2 – Functional Orthotics Most patients with early stage hallux rigidus complain of pain in and around the first MTP. [drpribut.com]
Delayed Wound Healing
Four patients had persistent hypoesthesia of the medial side of the great toe, and three had delayed wound healing. No patients required revisions or further surgical procedures. [emedicine.com]
Four patients had persistent hyperesthesia of the medial side of the great toe and 3 patients had delayed wound healing. Patients who had cheilectomy with Moberg osteotomy reported higher satisfaction than cheilectomy alone (32.6% vs 21.7%). [wjgnet.com]
KEYWORDS: diabetic foot ulcer; diabetic limb salvage; hallux limitus; infection; osteomyelitis; reulceration; surgical offloading [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Over time, these joints and tissues will become strained, creating pain and fatigue, calluses, foot ulcers, bone spurs, and other conditions. [pafootdoctors.com]
The postoperative perceptions of foot pain were comparable with the postoperative results from a range of previously published studies. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Our foot surgeon, an expert in stiff big toe treatment, will find the right options for you and ensure you are on the road to recovery from foot pain. [casteelfootandanklecenter.com]
Get started on resolving your foot pain today. Fill in the form below to make an appointment at one of our clinics. Or ask our team a specific question here . [footmechanicspodiatry.co.nz]
Symptoms include: A bump, like a bunion or callus, that develops on the top of the foot. Pain in the joint when active, especially as you push-off on the toes when you walk. Stiffness in the big toe and an inability to bend it up or down. [afcenters.com]
[…] cyst formation/loose body formation Stage III: Established Arthrosis Severe dorsal exostosis (first metatarsal head and base of proximal phalanx) Irregular joint space narrowing Traction enthesiopathic sesamoid hypertrophy with immobilization induced osteopenia [drpribut.com]
Hypertrophy of the sesamoids in due to chronic traction, disuse osteopenia is seen, and degeneration parallels that of the MTP joint. Natural history Hallux rigidus is a fairly benign condition. [foothyperbook.com]
Among the procedures discussed are Keller arthroplasty, Keller interpositional arthroplasty, Bonney-Kessel, Mayo-Stone, Regnauld, Youngswick, Watermann, Watermann-Green, tricorrectional metatarsal osteotomy, sagittal V, LADO (long-arm decompression osteotomy [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
PubMed Google Scholar Weinfeld SB, Schon L: Hallux Metatarsophalangeal Arthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1998, 249: 9-19. 10.1097/00003086-199804000-00003. [jfootankleres.biomedcentral.com]
It is characterised by lateral drift of the great toe in association with joint subluxation. Occurrence rates for the condition reported in the literature vary, depending on the age of the participants investigated. [jfootankleres.biomedcentral.com]
Early diagnosis is essential to arrest the progressive damage to the articular cartilage. A prior physical examination will be required, wherein the surgeon would move the foot in various directions to understand its range of motion and degree of damage to the area. Following this, radiographs would be indicated which show degenerative changes.
Joint Space Narrowing
Grade III - Severe changes with significant joint space narrowing, extensive bony proliferation and loose bodies or a dorsal ossicle. [en.wikipedia.org]
Investigation The diagnosis is made by obtaining an x-ray showing joint space narrowing, osteophytes and metatarsal head flattening. Ankylosis of the joint may also occur, but is usually present at a later stage of the disease. [fifamedicinediploma.com]
space narrowing - widening/flattening 1st MT head base proximal phalanx - subchondral sclerosis or cysts - horseshoe shaped osteophytes - lateral medial osteophytes - sesamoid hypertrophy - Non Operative Treatment: - includes molded stiff inserts w/ [wheelessonline.com]
space narrowing and subchondral sclerosis grade 3: marked osteophyte formation and loss of the visible joint space, /- subchondral cyst formation There is also the Coughlin and Shurnass classification 3 : grade 0 dorsiflexion 40-60 normal plain radiograph [radiopaedia.org]
Grade 3 changes showing severe joint space narrowing, bony proliferation and dorsal osteophytes. [orthopaedicsone.com]
In the early stages, non-surgical treatment approach is adopted to effectively manage the condition by controlling the symptoms.
- Wearing comfortable footwear having ample room for the big toe
- Women are advised against wearing high heels
- Some individuals benefit with shoes having stiff soles
- Inserting pads in the shoes can also help in limiting the movement of the toe
- Heavy exercises and high impact activities like jogging should be avoided
- Medication such as non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are employed for relieving pain and inflammation
- Ultrasound therapy or physical therapy helps in providing temporary relief
Surgery is the last resort and employed in more advanced and severe cases when other treatment methods do not reduce pain and discomfort. Several types of surgical procedures are available to treat hallux rigidus. The type of method employed depends on the extent of damage and severity of symptoms experienced. In many cases, cheilectomy which employs shaving off the bone spur can help relieve pain and restore motility .
A procedure known as osteotomy may be required which involves cutting the bone in order to shorten the toe. Other surgical procedures include interpositional arthroplasty and arthrodesis which may be conducted depending on the condition . Interpositional arthroplasty is helpful for younger patients. The procedure involves placing a spacer between the ends of joint; this helps in relieving pain and discomfort. Arthrodesis is employed in severe and more advanced stages.
Prognosis of the condition is quite favorable with patients responding well to the treatment regime used. Post treatment, patients can carry out daily activities with ease and can even exercise, run and wear all types of shoes comfortably. However, wearing shoes with high heels may be a cause of discomfort for individuals who have undergone fusion of toe .
The exact etiology of hallux rigidus is unknown. However, trauma, structural abnormalities in the big toe combined with faulty biomechanics, are some of the factors known to cause hallux rigidus. Wear and tear in the first MTP joint is understood to be the major cause behind hallux rigidus.
Some research scholars have postulated the fact that repeated athletic activities leads to chronic gradual attenuation of the joint in the big toe; which subsequently paves way for development of osteoarthritis .
It has been estimated that hallux rigidus is the second most common problem concerning the first MTP joint after hallux vagus. Majority of about 80% cases of hallux rigidus are bilateral in nature. More women are affected than men and the condition commonly strikes adults between the age group of 30 to 50 years  .
The development and onset of hallux rigidus follows the principle of degenerative arthritis. Factors that cause undue stress on the articular cartilage include overuse of the joint, injury or faulty joint mechanics. These events gradually cause degeneration of the articular cartilage .
This in turn makes the joint more susceptible to wear and tear, thus making it more prone to injury. Such sequence of events causes increase in the subchondral density of bone, development of periarticular osteophytes and cystic changes. The formation of osteophytes causes considerable decrease in the MTP joint mobility with further degradation of normal joint mechanics. In more advanced or severe cases, articular cartilage undergoes denudation .
Hallux rigidus is a progressive disorder, and gradually causes the big toe to stiffen giving rise to condition known as frozen joint. It is a form of degenerative arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the foot, requiring prompt diagnosis and effective management. Females are more prone to suffer from the condition than males .
- Definition: Hallux rigidus is characterized by development of stiffness along with pain in the joint of the big toe. The condition is also termed as stiff big toe.
- Cause: Various factors give rise to the condition of hallux rigidus. Injury, repeated use of the joint which poses stress on the joint causes articular damage with subsequent degeneration. Faulty biomechanics of the joint can also increase the risk of hallux rigidus.
- Symptoms: Affected individuals suffer from joint stiffness along with pain in the affected area. Individuals also experience great deal of difficulty while walking. In extreme cases, the pain aggravates in cold weather and there is gradual change in the gait of the individuals which forces them to limp while walking.
- Diagnosis: A preliminary physical examination is carried out to determine the extent of motility of the joint of big toe. This is followed by an X-ray of the toe to identify degenerative changes in the joint.
- Treatment: In initial stages, the condition can be managed by adopting a non-surgical approach which includes modifications in foot wear, and avoidance of high heels. Individuals are also given ultrasound and physical therapy to provide temporary relief. Medications are given to relieve pain and inflammation in the affected joint. Surgery is done during advanced stages.
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