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Hemiplegia

Hemi-paralysis

Hemiplegia is a paralysis of one side of the body.


Presentation

  • Considering the presented cases, it is suggested that HO should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in stroke patients presenting with spontaneous joint pain or limitation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PATIENT: We present a boy who had a typical acute presentation of HHE at 23 months, but an unusual evolution to chronic epilepsy in which the initially unaffected hemisphere was significantly abnormal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is a case presentation of a 15-year-old boy who presented with an acute history of neck swelling, shortness of breath, orthopnoea, pericardial effusion, right hip and knee swelling. He later developed torticollis and left sided hemiplegia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is necessary to consider JE when a patient presents with abrupt hemiplegia with fever followed with mental confusion and seizure, especially if the patient comes from a JE-endemic area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An 11-year-old girl presented with left hemiplegia and palpitations. Three months later she had a deepvein thrombosis of the right common iliac vein.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Falling
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our device could facilitate wheelchair operation and might potentially be used to reduce fall risk in stroke patients and the burden on caregivers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Falling Weakness of one or both legs can cause falling. A stroke that affects the balance center of the brain can cause a stroke victim to fall. Serious strokes can also induce sudden loss of consciousness, which may manifest as falling.[verywell.com]
  • Major complications in group A were pain, lag screw cut out, implant infection and distal femoral fractures caused by fall after the surgery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ‘Preventing recurrent falls in patients with nonmodifiable risks such as hemiplegia or joint deformities can be more challenging.’ immobility, powerlessness, lack of sensation, numbness, deadness, incapacity, debilitation View synonyms Origin Early 17th[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • Motor Right Arm 3 No effort against gravity, limb falls 6a. Motor Left Leg 1 Drift, limb holds 90 (or 45) degrees but drifts down before full 10 seconds: does not hit bed 6b. Motor Right Leg 3 No effort against gravity, limb falls 7.[cns.org]
Difficulty Walking
  • Symptoms may include: Difficulty walking Poor balance Little or no use of one hand or leg Speech problems Visual problems Behavioural problems Learning difficulties Epilepsy Developmental delay, for example learning to walk later than other children What[revitalise.org.uk]
  • Experiencing a one-sided weakness in your arms, hands, face, chest, legs, or feet can cause the following in patients: Loss of balance Difficulty walking Difficulty grasping objects Loss of spatial recognition and a decrease in movement precision Muscle[saebo.com]
Walking with a Cane
  • METHOD: Laboratory gait analysis was performed for 14 non-hemiplegic elderly (NE) and 12 post-stroke hemiplegic elderly walking without cane (HNC) and 11 walking with a cane (HWC).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Soft Tissue Swelling
  • Cervical spine radiograph showed increased atlantodental index (ADI) and prevertebral soft tissue swelling. Consent was sought from guardian and patient to use images and case notes for submission for publication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • Group 1 contained 60 patients who underwent neuronavigation-assisted aspiration and electro-acupuncture (NAEA), group 2 contained 60 patients who underwent neuronavigation-assisted aspiration (NA), group 3 contained 60 patients who underwent electro-acupuncture[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Constipation
  • Heavy stimulation on REN-12, REN-23 (2.5 cun toward the root of the tongue) With dizziness or hypertension : GB-20, LIV-3 For urinary incontinence : UB-23, ("Burning Mountain" technique) For retention of urine or difficult urination : LI-6, SJ-4 For constipation[americandragon.com]
Regurgitation
  • Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large free-floating highly mobile mass in the left atrium and severe mitral valve regurgitation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Palpitations
  • An 11-year-old girl presented with left hemiplegia and palpitations. Three months later she had a deepvein thrombosis of the right common iliac vein.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Muscle Spasticity
  • As children grow and experience growth spurts they may have more problems with muscle spasticity. However, this does not mean that the initial injury has gotten any worse.[hemichat.org]
  • It’s often accompanied by these side effects: Muscle spasticity (weakness in the muscles) Muscle atrophy (loss of muscle strength) Seizures Pain Hemiparesis occurs when one side of the body is weakened, and it typically impacts your limbs and facial muscles[saebo.com]
  • As children experience growth spurts, they may have more problems with muscle spasticity, but this does not mean that the initial injury has gotten worse. Children with hemiplegia tend to show some atrophy of the hand, arm, shoulder, leg, and foot.[chasa.org]
Torticollis
  • He later developed torticollis and left sided hemiplegia. On admission, he was septicemic. There was no history of head or neck trauma. Cervical spine radiograph showed increased atlantodental index (ADI) and prevertebral soft tissue swelling.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neck Swelling
  • This is a case presentation of a 15-year-old boy who presented with an acute history of neck swelling, shortness of breath, orthopnoea, pericardial effusion, right hip and knee swelling. He later developed torticollis and left sided hemiplegia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aphasia
  • This study systematically investigated the impact of aphasia severity, integrity of semantic processing, and hemiplegia on the use of co-verbal gestures, with reference to gesture forms and functions, by 131 normal speakers, 48 individuals with aphasia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the EEG pattern characterizing two acute episodes of paroxysmal paresis with confusion and aphasia, in a girl with GLUT1D.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ‘Seven years earlier, he had been hospitalized because of the sudden onset of right hemiplegia and aphasia.’[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • Damage to the left hemisphere of a right-handed person may also result in aphasia. Other causes of hemiplegia include trauma, such as spinal cord injury ; brain tumours ; and brain infections.[britannica.com]
  • A 49-year-old woman was brought to the ED 2 hours after the onset of hemiplegia and aphasia during a transatlantic flight. Examination revealed evidence of acute ischemic stroke. Additional diagnostic studies were performed.[nejm.org]
Slow Speech
  • Speech and Language – Depending on the age and cause of injury, the child may have problems with speech, such as lack of speech or extremely slow speech. These may improve with time.[chasa.org]
Dysarthria
  • Dysarthria: 2 Severe; patient speech is so slurred as to be unintelligible in the absence of or our of proportion to any dysphagia, or is mute/anarthric 11.[cns.org]

Workup

Pericardial Effusion
  • The patient was treated with analgesia, drainage of pericardial effusion and intravenous antibiotics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • MRI of the brain showed a subacute right thalamic infarct, and an ECG showed left atrial and left ventricular hypertrophy. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a left atrial myxoma impinging on the mitral valve.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • If you do decide to use any such treatment, discuss this with your physician first. There have been instances where more harm has been caused from these treatments, plus they are also expensive.[web.archive.org]
  • Four different rehabilitative treatments were chosen when the child was inpatient or outpatient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluated Gamma nail internal fixation in the treatment of elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia experiencing trochanteric hip fracture.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After the treatment, the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and contralesional M1 increased while the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and ipsilesional SMA and paracentral lobule decreased.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Grisel syndrome patients might end up with catastrophic outcomes if left untreated or mis-diagnosed, but if prompt treatment is initiated, full functional recovery is achievable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Early recognition of the syndrome may help provide patients and families with an accurate prognosis regarding the subsequent development of epilepsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Children with the benign form of alternating hemiplegia have a good prognosis.[disabled-world.com]
  • Every patient is different, but there is no way to conclusively predict the prognosis of these disorders. Some people spontaneously recover, even with no treatment. Others make little progress, even with extensive treatment.[spinalcord.com]
  • […] subcortical cavitations in the affected hemisphere reduced caliber of ACA, MCA or PCA on the affected side small corpus callosum ipsilateral hemispheric volume loss with a shift of midline structures usually lack hemosiderin on T2*/ SWI Treatment and prognosis[radiopaedia.org]

Etiology

  • A review of the literature explains the basic anatomy and kinesiology of the shoulder complex, the various etiologies of hemiplegic shoulder pain, and the pros and cons of specific treatment techniques.[ajot.aota.org]
  • Seizure and migraine are common etiologies. However, pediatric stroke is also a common cause of acute hemiplegia and needs to be promptly differentiated from other causes.[medlink.com]
  • Etiology Although the exact pathophysiological mechanism of AHC remains unclear, de novo heterozygous mutations in the ATP1A3 (19q13.2) gene, encoding a subunit of the Na /K ATPase pump, have been implicated as causative for the majority of screened AHC[orpha.net]
  • Hemiparetic cerebral palsy: etiological risk factors and neuroimaging journal article 2001 Visual function in children with hemiplegia in the first years of life 2001 The relationship between infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes: an overview, Dec[chasa.org]
  • Epidemiology and etiology of cerebral palsy. In: UpToDate, Basow, DS (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2013. 9. Demir, S.O., Oktay, F. Uysal, H., & Seluk, B. (2006). Upper extremity shortness in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.[cpnet.canchild.ca]

Epidemiology

  • Cerebral palsy epidemiology: where are we now and where are we going? ‏ الصفحة 61 - Tactile control of isometric fingertip forces during grasping in children with cerebral palsy. ‏[books.google.com]
  • Summary Epidemiology Alternating hemiplagia of childhood (AHC) prevalence is estimated at 1/100,000 in children under 16 years old, although underdiagnosis is probable.[orpha.net]
  • The epidemiology of cerebral palsy: Incidence, impairments and risk factors. Disability & Rehabilitation, 28(4):183-191. 2. Steenbergen, B, Gordon ,A.M. (2006).[cpnet.canchild.ca]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The clinical features of HHE syndrome were first described more than 5 decades ago but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood and the long-term cognitive outcomes are unclear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chronic epilepsy later develops, typically involving refractory focal seizures; however, the underlying pathophysiology of this epilepsy is not well understood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome remains uncertain and there are probably multiple potential contributing factors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To describe a case of non-traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (Grisel syndrome) and to review clinical and radiologic aspects, pathophysiology, and treatment of this rare condition, which if left untreated can lead to catastrophic outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We speculate whether alternating hemiplegia of childhood shares some common pathophysiological mechanisms with familial hemiplegic migraine that may be associated with a pathogenic variant of ATP1A2 .[jle.com]

Prevention

  • These individuals may need a special bed to help prevent pressure sores and assist in upper body using arm bars.[web.archive.org]
  • Good intra-operative visualisation and appropriate surgical technique are essential to prevent complications and achieve a functional nasal airway. The importance of the presented case to the pre-operative informed consent process is underlined.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PURPOSE: Older and/or cognitively impaired patients require verbal guidance to prevent accidents during wheelchair operation, thus increasing the burden on caregivers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • His evolution to "hemi-Lennox-Gastaut-like phenotype" illustrates the importance of monitoring chronic epilepsy in patients with HHE; early surgical intervention might prevent pathologic recruitment of bilateral secondary networks leading to the refractory[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] is better than cure and early and aggressive termination of seizures is considered the most effective way to prevent post-convulsive hemiplegia 9.[radiopaedia.org]

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Last updated: 2014-05-06 22:04