Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Hemophilus Meningitis

Haemophilus Meningitides


Presentation

  • Signs of increased ICP are especially likely to be found in children with a fulminant history and those who are moribund on presentation.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • One case presented with meningitis, and one case presented with bacteraemia.[hps.scot.nhs.uk]
  • A review of the literature of hearing loss in meningitis is presented with special emphasis on cases in which the hearing loss fluctuated. The cases in the literature were usually not followed for more than one year.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the clinical presentation in patients with positive and negative CSF cultures was similar to that in previous studies [ 1, 20 ].[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • Hib, for example may present as epiglottitis (severe swelling in the throat) or pneumonia.[immune.org.nz]
Fever
  • You should get medical care right away if you have A sudden high fever A severe headache A stiff neck Nausea or vomiting Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death.[icdlist.com]
  • Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; photophobia; seizures; hearing loss, sensorineural; coma; and cerebrovascular thrombosis.[icd10data.com]
  • Tick-borne Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia conorii Boutonneuse fever Rickettsia japonica Japanese spotted fever Rickettsia sibirica North Asian tick typhus Rickettsia australis Queensland tick typhus Rickettsia honei Flinders[en.wikipedia.org]
High Fever
  • You should get medical care right away if you have A sudden high fever A severe headache A stiff neck Nausea or vomiting Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death.[icdlist.com]
  • The following morning there was some improvement but she later became sleepy and developed a high fever. Her mother called the surgery and was put through to a GP, who advised her to continue with oral fluids and liquid paracetamol.[themdu.com]
  • Symptoms of invasive Haemophilus influenzae include high fever, irritability, aching, tiredness, intense headache, stiff neck and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The bacteria can infect different parts of the body, so other symptoms may occur.[ok.gov]
  • The onset is usually abrupt, with high fever and breathing difficulties.[britannica.com]
Epilepsy
  • (from menkes, textbook of child neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7) ICD-10-CM G00.0 is grouped within Diagnostic Related Group(s) (MS-DRG v 36.0): 023 Craniotomy with major device implant or acute complex cns pdx with mcc or chemotherapy implant or epilepsy with[icd10data.com]
  • The outcomes were as follows: complete recovery (53.4%); the development of symptomatic epilepsy (4.1%), sensorineural hearing loss (3.1%), compensated communicating hydrocephalus (8.2%), and various manifestations of encephalopathy (17.8%).[epidemiology-journal.ru]
  • Epilepsy Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain that results in recurring seizures, which can be caused by infections such as meningitis. Fontanelle A soft spot on the head of a baby or infant.[comomeningitis.org]
  • […] require special education services. [10] Negative long-term effects are more likely in subjects whose treatments were delayed, as well as in subjects who were given antibiotics to which the bacteria was resistant. [3] Ten percent of survivors develop epilepsy[en.wikipedia.org]
Chills
  • Pneumonia Symptoms of pneumonia (lung infection) usually include: Fever and chills Cough Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Sweating Chest pain Headache Muscle pain or aches Excessive tiredness Bacteremia Bacteremia is an infection of the bloodstream[cdc.gov]
  • […] member with an H influenzae infection Native American race Pregnancy Older age Sinus infection ( sinusitis ) Sore throat ( pharyngitis ) Upper respiratory infection Weakened immune system Symptoms usually come on quickly, and may include: Fever and chills[medlineplus.gov]
  • Fever and chills. Headache. Tiredness - excessive. Cough. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Anxiety. Nausea. Symptoms can appear quickly and worsen quickly in children, so urgent medical attention is necessary.[mydr.com.au]
  • Fever and chills. Headache. Tiredness – excessive. Cough. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Anxiety. Nausea. Symptoms can appear quickly and worsen quickly in children, so urgent medical attention is necessary.[mydr.com.au]
  • If you have a baby who is sick with sudden fever, shaking/chills, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, disorientation and sensitivity to light take action immediately.[healthnavigator.org.nz]
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • In 2 cases, the isolates were obtained from postmortem blood culture, but the final diagnosis was “unascertained” and “sudden infant death syndrome.”[academic.oup.com]
Vomiting
  • You should get medical care right away if you have A sudden high fever A severe headache A stiff neck Nausea or vomiting Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death.[icdlist.com]
  • Symptoms of meningitis typically include sudden onset of: Fever Headache Stiff neck Nausea with or without vomiting Photophobia (eyes being more sensitive to light) Altered mental status (confusion) Babies with meningitis may be irritable, vomit, feed[cdc.gov]
  • 10 July 0002 A young child became unwell overnight and started to vomit. The following morning there was some improvement but she later became sleepy and developed a high fever.[themdu.com]
  • Vomiting is a common finding in the meningitis. [4] Sensitivity to light (photophobia) Inability to tolerate light is due to the meningism that indicates inflammatory activation of the trigeminal sensory nerve fibers in the meninges. [1] Pain during[explainmedicine.com]
  • Symptoms of invasive Haemophilus influenzae include high fever, irritability, aching, tiredness, intense headache, stiff neck and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The bacteria can infect different parts of the body, so other symptoms may occur.[ok.gov]
Nausea
  • You should get medical care right away if you have A sudden high fever A severe headache A stiff neck Nausea or vomiting Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death.[icdlist.com]
  • Symptoms of bacteremia include: Fever and chills Excessive tiredness Pain in the belly Nausea with or without vomiting Diarrhea Anxiety Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Altered mental status (confusion) Bacteremia from H. influenzae can occur[cdc.gov]
  • Symptoms of invasive Haemophilus influenzae include high fever, irritability, aching, tiredness, intense headache, stiff neck and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The bacteria can infect different parts of the body, so other symptoms may occur.[ok.gov]
  • Symptoms may include: Unusual irritability Difficulty sleeping or staying asleep Tugging or pulling at one or both ears Fever Fluid draining from ear(s) Loss of balance Hearing difficulties Ear pain Nausea and vomiting Decreased appetite Nasal congestion[chop.edu]
Tachycardia
Photophobia
  • Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; photophobia; seizures; hearing loss, sensorineural; coma; and cerebrovascular thrombosis.[icd10data.com]
  • Symptoms of meningitis typically include sudden onset of: Fever Headache Stiff neck Nausea with or without vomiting Photophobia (eyes being more sensitive to light) Altered mental status (confusion) Babies with meningitis may be irritable, vomit, feed[cdc.gov]
  • […] will lead severe headache experienced by the patient. severe headache. [9] Fever [1] Inflammation of the meninges and endothelium releases pyrogens causing fever. [1,6] Vomiting Vomiting is a common finding in the meningitis. [4] Sensitivity to light (photophobia[explainmedicine.com]
  • The symptoms of infectious meningitis include fever, headache, stiff neck (called nuchal rigidity), nausea, vomiting, eye discomfort in bright light (called photophobia), irritability, and change in mental status. Infants may have poor feeding.[professionals.site.apic.org]
  • Older children and adults In older children and adults, symptoms of meningitis include: headache fever vomiting stiff neck or back joint pains drowsiness (excessive sleepiness) or confusion photophobia (discomfort when looking at light).[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
Headache
  • You should get medical care right away if you have A sudden high fever A severe headache A stiff neck Nausea or vomiting Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death.[icdlist.com]
  • Pneumonia Symptoms of pneumonia (lung infection) usually include: Fever and chills Cough Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Sweating Chest pain Headache Muscle pain or aches Excessive tiredness Bacteremia Bacteremia is an infection of the bloodstream[cdc.gov]
  • Bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causes production of nitrite, which is a potent vasodilator causing generalized vasodilatation in meninges. [9] This will lead severe headache experienced by the patient. severe headache. [9] Fever [1] Inflammation[explainmedicine.com]
  • Educate parents of a possibility for a second case in siblings of less than 4 years of especially if symptoms like headache, fever and stiff neck are present. Back to A to Z of Infectious Diseases[deputyprimeminister.gov.mt]
  • Meningitis - fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness Epiglottitis - difficulty breathing and swallowing, pale colour and fever Pneumonia - shortness of breath, fever, lack of energy, loss of appetite, headache, chest pain and cough[health.nsw.gov.au]
Irritability
  • Sometimes the presence of these signs may be difficult to judge in irritable infants.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Symptoms of meningitis typically include sudden onset of: Fever Headache Stiff neck Nausea with or without vomiting Photophobia (eyes being more sensitive to light) Altered mental status (confusion) Babies with meningitis may be irritable, vomit, feed[cdc.gov]
  • […] and chills Mental status changes Nausea and vomiting Sensitivity to light ( photophobia ) Severe headache Stiff neck (meningismus) Other symptoms that can occur include: Agitation Bulging fontanelles in infants Decreased consciousness Poor feeding and irritability[medlineplus.gov]
  • – inflammation of the flap at the top of the windpipe (epiglottis), which can block a child's breathing (signs include severe breathing difficulties, fever, restlessness and irritability) pneumonia – lung inflammation (symptoms include fever, cough,[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • Symptoms of invasive Haemophilus influenzae include high fever, irritability, aching, tiredness, intense headache, stiff neck and sometimes nausea and vomiting. The bacteria can infect different parts of the body, so other symptoms may occur.[ok.gov]
Seizure
  • Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; photophobia; seizures; hearing loss, sensorineural; coma; and cerebrovascular thrombosis.[icd10data.com]
  • Seizure management Treat seizures in the setting of meningitis immediately with benzodiazepines and load with phenytoin (20mg/kg over one hour). See Afebrile convulsion guideline for further information.[rch.org.au]
  • Twenty-nine percent of cases had severe neurologic sequelae, including mental retardation (24%), severe hearing loss (5%), cerebral palsy (7%), and seizure disorder (12%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In all such cases of bacterial meningitis, other indicators are present, such as fever, mental status changes, seizures, or elevation of the circulating white blood cell count to greater than 10,000/µL.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Symptoms include a fever, a decrease in appetite, an increase in crying or irritability, seizures, excessive sleepiness, and vomiting. In children older than 2 years, there may be additional symptoms such as a headache, a stiff neck, and back pain.[healthychildren.org]
Neck Stiffness
  • GP expert opinion said The absence of neck stiffness in a young child does not rule out meningitis The GP had not appreciated the extent to which the child was genuinely ill as opposed to the specific symptoms that were being exhibited The child should[themdu.com]
  • In older children and adults symptoms of meningitis include: headache fever vomiting neck stiffness and joint pains drowsiness or confusion discomfort on looking at bright lights.[dhhs.tas.gov.au]
  • Older children with meningitis typically have neck stiffness and sensitivity to light. Children with epiglottitis may have breathing difficulties and be dribbling and anxious.[healthywa.wa.gov.au]
  • Symptoms of meningitis Fever, loss of appetite, vomiting Drowsiness, headache, sensitivity to bright light, neck stiffness Signs may be vague and non-specific in young infants; they may have a bulging fontanelle Symptoms of epiglottitis Fever Breathing[immune.org.nz]
Confusion
  • Symptoms of bacteremia include: Fever and chills Excessive tiredness Pain in the belly Nausea with or without vomiting Diarrhea Anxiety Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Altered mental status (confusion) Bacteremia from H. influenzae can occur[cdc.gov]
  • Symptoms of meningitis include fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, light sensitivity and confusion. About 10% of cases surviving H. influenzae meningitis have permanent neurological damage. Treatment is with antibiotics.[doh.wa.gov]
  • In older children and adults symptoms of meningitis include: headache fever vomiting neck stiffness and joint pains drowsiness or confusion discomfort on looking at bright lights.[dhhs.tas.gov.au]
  • The infection usually starts suddenly with: fever vomiting lack of energy confusion headache stiff neck Hib can cause serious and life-threatening infections including meningitis (an infection of the lining that covers the brain) and septicemia (an infection[bccdc.ca]
  • Meningitis (bacterial or viral): Stiff neck Dislike of bright lights Severe drowsiness/confusion Vomiting Headache Fever Seizures/fits.[irishhealth.com]

Workup

  • Further immunological workup should be considered if immunodeficiency is suspected, for example, if an episode of meningitis occurs at an age that is uncharacteristic for the causative pathogen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cerebrospinal Fluid Abnormality
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Absent or minimal cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in haemophilus influenzae meningitis AU - Hegenbarth, Mary A. AU - Green, Michael AU - Rowley, Anne H. AU - Chadwick, Ellen G.[scholars.northwestern.edu]
Brain Edema
  • Abstract A model of experimental lapin meningitis was used to assess the effect of meningeal inflammation caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b on development of brain edema, increase in intracranial pressure, and production of brain lactate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • edema by concomitant administration of anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies and dexamethasone in experimental Haemophilus meningitis. ( 1684364 ) SA![malacards.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment is with antibiotics. There is a vaccine to prevent Hib disease. All children younger than 5 years of age should be vaccinated with the Hib vaccine.[icdlist.com]
  • While there are no specific drugs for the treatment of viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis requires prompt treatment with antibiotics.[irishhealth.com]
  • Specific treatment is not usually required.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.[drugs.com]
  • Teresa Winslow – US Government has certain rights Treatment Doctors treat H. influenzae, including Hib, disease with antibiotics, usually for 10 days.[cdc.gov]

Prognosis

  • It was concluded that H. influenzae meningitis in adults is a disease with a rather benign clinical course and a relatively good prognosis compared with pneumococcal meningitis.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • These patients tend to be severely ill at presentation, and the hypothermia portends a worse prognosis. In part, the poorer outcome may be due to enhanced bacterial replication at lower temperatures.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Prognosis The sequelae following Hib meningitis may include deafness, convulsions and intellectual impairment.[patient.info]
  • Prognosis [ edit ] Survivors of Haemophilus meningitis may experience permanent damage caused by inflammation around the brain, mostly involving neurological disorders.[en.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • Tabs Content Clinical Overview Diagnosis Indications for Testing Identify etiologic agent in pneumonia, meningitis, cellulitis, septic arthritis Laboratory Testing CDC testing recommendations Rapid antigen detection tests are available – utility is questionable[arupconsult.com]
  • Rates of Hib meningitis and probable bacterial meningitis with no determined etiology declined by 13 and 17 cases per 100 000, respectively.[scielosp.org]
  • This may include an increased frequency of etiologic agents less common to determined age groups, different CSF characteristics and worse progression.[scielo.br]
  • […] timely identification of the causal pathogen the provision of sufficient antibiotics for case management the selection and provision of the appropriate vaccine for epidemic response At any time, to describe the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis by etiological[who.int]
  • Fever, infection The decision to administer or to delay vaccination with meningococcal group B vaccine (3 strain) because of current or recent febrile illness depends on the severity of symptoms and on the etiology of the disease.[pdr.net]

Epidemiology

  • Descriptive Epidemiology 587 Mechanisms and Routes of Transmission 7 Pathogenesis and Immunity 590 Patterns of Host Response 591 Control and Prevention 592 References 593 Suggested Reading 595 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Theodore E Woodward and J Stephen[books.google.ro]
  • To study the clinical and epidemiological features of Haemophilus meningitis in Saint Petersburg children. Materials and methods.[epidemiology-journal.ru]
  • Fraser at the Center for Disease Control, Bacterial Diseases Division, Bureau of Epidemiology, Atlanta, GA 30333).[nejm.org]
  • These guidelines on prevention of secondary disease have been developed following a review of the epidemiology of invasive Hib disease.[gov.uk]
  • […] serotype b (Hib) disease for investigation To identify contacts of persons with Hib infection and ensure administration of appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis To monitor the occurrence of invasive disease due to non-serotype b H. influenzae Local epidemiology[kingcounty.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • It is the purpose of this report to describe a case of transient vasopressin (Pitressin)-responsive diabetes insipidus complicating Haemophilus meningitis, to discuss the possible pathophysiology, and to outline the diagnosis and management.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • In this article, the author reviews the clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of H influenzae infection, with emphasis on the key features useful for making a timely diagnosis.[medlink.com]

Prevention

  • […] to Know (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) [ Read More ][icdlist.com]
  • Descriptive Epidemiology 587 Mechanisms and Routes of Transmission 7 Pathogenesis and Immunity 590 Patterns of Host Response 591 Control and Prevention 592 References 593 Suggested Reading 595 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Theodore E Woodward and J Stephen[books.google.ro]
  • Rifampicin is given to prevent the spread of Hib infection. However, it may not always be successful in preventing infection in the contacts of a case.[dhhs.tas.gov.au]
  • A vaccine can prevent one type of H. influenzae (type b or Hib) disease. CDC recommends Hib vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old.[cdc.gov]
  • How is meningitis prevented? Transmission of viral and bacterial meningitis can be prevented by raising the level of hygiene among persons at risk of infection and among those who might be spreading the disease.[dph.illinois.gov]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!