Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an acute immunoglobulin A (IgA)–mediated vasculitis that affects small vessels.
The onset of purpura, abdominal pain, and arthritis may occur in any order. It is important to remember that abdominal pain and arthritis are not universally present in patients. The timing of symptoms may vary from within days or insidious over a period of weeks . Children will almost always have complaints of purpura and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in up to 70% cases. Adults will often complain of symptoms pertaining to skin and joints.
The diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura is often based on clinical signs and symptoms .
Complete blood count
Complement fixation test
Hospitalization may be required in these cases:
The treatment of HSP is the same for adults and children.
Supportive treatment is the mainstay treatment. Most patients are able to recover completely without longstanding complications. Some cases do not even necessitate therapeutic intervention .
Various studies yield positive outcomes of the role of steroid intervention in management of HSP:
Patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) have been anecdotally reported to benefit from intensive plasma exchange combined with cytotoxic drugs .
HSP cases resolve spontaneously in 94 percent of children and 89 percent of adults   with excellent prognosis. Mortality is exceedingly rare and roughly 1–5% of children progress to end-stage renal disease .
Disease recurrences have been found in 10-40% of patient. This usually subsides within 3–6 months. Longer clinical course have been reported in patients with renal involvement .
The list of common offenders is as follows:
Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)
URTI is a common antecedent for HSP.
Other types of allergen
About 10 to 22 per 100,000 persons are seen by physicians for HSP every year  .
HSP has a special predilection for school-age children.
Males are more affected than females by a slight margin.
The disease peaks during spring season.
The clear mechanism for development of HSP is not yet clearly understood. It is widely based on an assumption that deposition of immune complexes, such as immunoglobulin A (IgA), and granulocyte debris in the walls of small blood vessels cause extravasation of red blood cells into the dermis. Therefore, the most common HSP clinical presentations are petechiae and palpable purpura. Numerous antigens from allergens can elicit immunologic cascades and immune complex deposition.
The symptoms of patients depend on the location of immune complex depositions. When immune complexes occur in small vessels of the intestinal wall, gastrointestinal hemorrhage may develop. If the immune complexes successfully penetrate the renal mesangium, it may produce mild proliferative to severe crescentic glomerulonephritis .
HSP is mainly immunologic. Avoiding known and potential allergens will help prevent acquiring HSP.
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis of the small blood vessels. It is also known as anaphylactoid or allergic purpura due to HSP’s association with an immunologic reaction. It is often secondary to allergens, streptococcal infections, insect stings, or drug administration. The disease most frequently occurs in the pediatric and young adult population.
Immune complex can burrow through the walls of small blood vessels, particularly in the skin, joints, intestines and kidneys. This often leads to a diffuse inflammation of the affected blood vessels. As a consequence, there is leakiness of affected blood vessels that is characterized by a distinct palpable purpura (most commonly seen over the buttocks and lower extremities), multiple joint pains, gastrointestinal (GI) signs and symptoms, and glomerulonephritis .
HSP is the body’s response to certain triggers such as allergens, pollen, medications, and infections. The body reacts by releasing allergy-fighting chemicals against the offender. Unfortunately, these chemicals deposit in the small blood vessels. This deposition produces holes and blood cells leak into the layer beneath the skin. The result of the leakiness is a cluster of symptoms collectively known as HSP.
Swelling of the testes
Treatment mainly focuses on providing symptom relief by giving pain killers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and adequate fluid intake. The disease is allergic in nature and heals on its own after 2-4 weeks  in 90% of cases.
Close monitoring and follow-up of patients is necessary in very few instances of kidney involvement. Referral to a nephrologist is also done to avoid further kidney complications.
Home remedy for symptom relief: