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  • Heparan sulfate is a ubiquitous compound present in all species analyzed whereas chondroitin sulfate was present in 20 species and heparin-like compounds in 12 species of the invertebrates.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a 47-year-old female patient, ASA 2, who was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine retroperitoneal tumor with thrombus in the left renal vein, inferior vena cava and right atrium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of a 45-year-old female with a mobile right heart thrombus treated with ultra-slow, low-dose t-PA infusion in combination with heparin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract An uncommon case of delayed-onset dalteparin-induced skin necrosis in an 83-year-old Caucasian female patient associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) presenting on day 30 following dalteparin therapy is reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Easy Bruising
  • Symptoms of overdose may include: nosebleed blood in urine black, tarry stools easy bruising unusual bleeding red blood in stools vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.[medlineplus.gov]
  • LMW heparins can cause minor bleeding (eg, easy bruising, gum bleeding after brushing teeth) as an undesirable adverse effect— a soft toothbrush, waxed dental floss and an electric shaver are recommended to minimise bleeding.[web.archive.org]
Intravenous Administration
  • Salmon heparin activity was recovered in plasma samples expressed as antifactor Xa activity after intravenous administration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The heparin-induced elevation of the plasma FFA was blocked by the intravenous administration of protamine sulfate 5 min prior to the heparin in 4 control subjects; however, the rise in the TfT 4 was not inhibited.[academic.oup.com]
  • Posology For the treatment or prevention of thrombo-embolic disorders: Treatment Dosage: Intravenous administration 5,000-10,000 IU every 4 hours or 500 IU/kg bodyweight daily as a continuous infusion in sodium chloride injection or dextrose injection[web.archive.org]
Mucosal Edema
  • Bronchoscopy on the first day of intensive care confirmed the injury from smoke inhalation and revealed mucosal edema and soot involving the tracheobronchial tree.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two patients experienced occasional transient dysgeusia. Neutrolin , when used in conjunction with guideline-based catheter care, showed reduction in the rate of both CRBSI and catheter thrombosis relative to recent historical controls.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Vortex Keratopathy
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of amiodarone-induced vortex keratopathy-associated anatomical findings and subjective visual perception before and after treatment with topical heparin eye drops. METHODS: Case report.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Corneal Deposit
  • The area of corneal deposits was measured by 2 examiners before and at the 1- and 3-month examination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Skin necrosis manifests as sharply demarcated tender red or purple patches ( purpura ) which develop black centres and may lead to dry gangrene. A net-like or branching, retiform, pattern of purpura may also be seen.[dermnetnz.org]
  • Patients who consume large amounts of alcohol, who are sensitive to the drug, who are actively bleeding or who have haemophilia or other bleeding disorders, severe liver disease (including oesophageal varices), purpura, severe hypertension, active tuberculosis[medicines.org.uk]
  • ., hemophilia, some vascular purpuras, thrombocytopenia); menstruation; hepatic disease with impaired hemostasis; severe hypertension; major surgery, especially involving the eye, brain, or spinal cord; continuous tube drainage of the stomach or small[drugs.com]
  • Musculoskeletal Frequency not reported : Significant bone demineralization, spontaneous bone fracture Postmarketing reports : Osteoporosis [ Ref ] Dermatologic Frequency not reported : Ecchymoses Postmarketing reports : Cutaneous necrosis, delayed transient alopecia[drugs.com]
  • More rarely, the side-effects alopecia and osteoporosis can occur with chronic use. As with many drugs, overdoses of heparin can be fatal.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • There is some evidence that prolonged dosing with heparin (i.e. over many months) may cause alopecia. Pruritus Rash (including erythematous and maculopapular) Vascular disorders: Haematoma .[medicines.org.uk]
  • Minor hemorrhages were those that were confirmed to be overt and to have some clinically important feature, such as epistaxis, ecchymosis, hematoma, or macroscopic hematuria but that did not meet the criteria for major hemorrhage.[nejm.org]


  • Improved workup for glycosaminoglycan disaccharide analysis using CE with LIF detection. ELECTROPHORESIS 2008, 29 (22), 4538-4548. DOI: 10.1002/elps.200800335. Sabine Wegehingel, Christoph Zehe, Walter Nickel.[doi.org]
Potassium Increased
  • increased, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis Postmarketing reports : Rebound hyperlipidemia [ Ref ] Musculoskeletal Frequency not reported : Significant bone demineralization, spontaneous bone fracture Postmarketing reports : Osteoporosis [ Ref ] Dermatologic[drugs.com]
Lipase Increased
  • increased Postmarketing reports : Heparin resistance [ Ref ] Hypersensitivity Frequency not reported : Conjunctivitis, cyanosis, tachypnea, feeling of oppression, angioneurotic edema, anaphylactic shock Postmarketing reports : Chills, fever, urticaria[drugs.com]
Helicobacter Pylori
  • Chiung-Hung Chang, Wen-Ying Huang, Chih-Ho Lai, Yuan-Man Hsu, Yi-Hsing Yao, Ting-Yu Chen, Jing-Yan Wu, Shu-Fen Peng and Yu-Hsin Lin, Development of novel nanoparticles shelled with heparin for berberine delivery to treat Helicobacter pylori, Acta Biomaterialia[doi.org]
  • There were no significant differences in the location, number or size of resected polyps between the two groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Dosage in the Elderly Treatment Dosage: Lower treatment dosages may be required.[web.archive.org]
  • The treatment of septic non-union of the tibia is a challenging area. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • LMW heparins are replacing unfractionated heparin for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and the treatment of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ultra-slow, low-dose infusion of t-PA may be an option for treatment of mobile intracardiac thrombi.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain cancer, and despite treatment advances, patient prognosis remains poor.[stemcell.com]


  • The wide range of etiologic microbes and the ongoing development of resistance to antimicrobials with specific mechanisms of action make this an appropriate target for applying a nonspecific antimicrobial therapeutic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Emmanuel Spanakis, Human DNA Sampling and Banking, Molecular Genetic Epidemiology — A Laboratory Perspective, 10.1007/978-3-642-56207-5_2, (27-53), (2002).[doi.org]
  • The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003; 107 : I4–I8. Link Google Scholar 2 Hyers TM, Agnelli G, Hull RD, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease. Chest. 2001; 119 : 176S–193S.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • The exact pathophysiology is not well understood. Hemorrhagic bullous dermatosis is a rare cutaneous reaction that is temporally associated with the initiation of heparin products.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), located on animal cell membranes and in the extracellular matrix, are important molecules in cellular communication during development, in normal physiology and pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Pregnancy LMW heparins are being used increasingly in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves and for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism.[mja.com.au]
  • Treatment of venous thrombosis should not be oriented in the prevention of thrombus progression and associated thromboembolic events, but also in stimulation of thrombolysis and recanalization of occluded veins, which are one of the most important preventive[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Heparin will not dissolve blood clots that have already formed, but it may prevent the clots from becoming larger and causing more serious problems. Heparin is used to prevent or treat certain blood vessel, heart, and lung conditions.[mayoclinic.org]

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