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Hepatitis A Virus


  • The aim of the present article was to describe 3 clinical cases of atypical hepatitis A infection and provide a literature review of such cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fibrin thrombi were present in the lumen of a few blood vessels. She was treated with 2 mg/kg/day, tapered during 5 weeks. Serum liver enzymes returned to the normal range within 6 weeks of the first presenting symptom.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Concurrent presentation of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection and Graves' disease has not been reported in literature worldwide.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a 12-year old boy with jaundice for 2 weeks. The child was deeply icteric and had hepatomegaly. IgM antibodies for hepatitis A virus were positive. However this child had prolonged cholestasis and cholestyramine was started.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We describe a 27-year-old woman who presented with infertility, and over the subsequent 7 years developed chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection, hepatitis A, cirrhosis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute acalculous cholecystitis in the course of this infection is a rare and poorly reported event that needs to be diagnosed because of the possibility of complications, such as gangrene and perforation of the gallbladder wall.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • His disease course was complicated by the development of pseudotumor cerebri (PC), as evidenced by symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure in the presence of normal cerebrospinal fluid examination and cranial magnetic resonance scan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Severe Clinical Course
  • Acute viral hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus is a self-limited illness that infrequently has a severe clinical course.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A healthy 27-year-old female presented fever, palpitation, and diarrhea, and she was subsequently diagnosed as acute HAV infection. Concurrently, she showed hyperthyroidism, and the diagnosis was made as Graves' disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We describe two children with acute hepatitis A infection who developed immune thrombocytopenia and hepatic venous thrombosis during the course of acute infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The distribution of seropositive children was clustered in the eastern part of the city, where several socioeconomic inequities (lack of flushed toilets, lack of piped water inside the household and susceptibility of the household to flooding during rain[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Bilateral Arm Weakness
  • The presentation was characterized by acute onset dysphagia, loss of head control, and bilateral arm weakness. The diagnosis was confirmed by acute motor axonal changes in the arm and albuminocytologic dissociation of the cerebrospinal fluid.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Renal involvement in association with nonfulminant hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections have been reported infrequently and when present have been characterized by mild proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and slight urinary sediment abnormalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Microscopic Hematuria
  • Renal involvement in association with nonfulminant hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections have been reported infrequently and when present have been characterized by mild proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and slight urinary sediment abnormalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Isolated cranial nerve paresis in childhood hepatitis A virus infection is rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The neurological examination was normal with the exception of the right-sided sixth cranial nerve paresis. His neurological course was uncomplicated with spontaneous recovery within three days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A is still a neglected health problem in the world. The most affected areas are the ones with disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we present a 5-year-old patient with an initial complaint of nuchal rigidity and convulsions during the course of hepatitis A infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Babinski Sign
  • Neurological examination revealed lethargy, generalised weakness and positive Babinski's signs bilaterally. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis, increased protein and elevated anti-HAV IgM and IgG titres.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness is considered a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome with limited oropharyngeal, neck, and upper limb muscle involvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • In patients with such a disorder, a careful clinical workup such as IgM antibodies for hepatitis A virus at diagnosis and during follow-up is especially recommended.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The effects of metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus on HAV replication are still unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • The STP utilize different biological wastewater treatments including primary treatment, which involves the physical removal of organic and inorganic solids, and secondary treatment that involves different processes, such as activated sludge or lagoon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment with 10 μM sirtinol resulted in a significant reduction in the intracellular RNA levels of HAV HA11-1299 genotype IIIA in Huh7 cells. Epigenetic treatment with a sirtuin inhibitor may represent a new treatment option for HAV infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The same treatment was observed to have little effect on HAV even for the highest dose under the tested conditions (5 ppm, 3 min). Ozone treatment (5 ppm, 3 min) did not affect the appearance of raspberries even after three days post-treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Also, there was no correlation between the occurrence of HAdV and FC at both the treatment plants.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: The results indicate that, in heat-treatment studies, the LE or NLE HAV phenotype is less important than the choice of HAV variant, and the most heat-resistant HM175/18f should be used. 2017 AABB.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • The pathogenesis and management of this rare complication which usually carries a poor prognosis, are briefly discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Physicians should be aware of the potential renal involvement of Hepatitis A virus infection as the prognosis is not always favourable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis : Thankfully, hepatitis A a does not become a chronic infection, meaning symptoms will clear up after a few months. And almost all people who become infected with HAV recover fully.[thevaccinemom.com]
  • Hepatitis A Prognosis Hepatitis A symptoms are usually mild and resolve on their own; most patients fully recover in 3 to 6 months. Rarely will patients develop complications such as relapsing hepatitis or liver failure.[emedicinehealth.com]


  • Hepatitis A virus has been recognized as an etiologic factor of cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis in only 2 adult cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Identification of hepatitis A virus as an etiology of viral encephalitis can reduce the need for extensive costly evaluations, and unnecessary empiric antibiotics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hepatitis A virus sequencing revealed coinfection with 2 subgenotypes of hepatitis A virus (Ia and Ib) as etiological factors of the illness. Hepatitis A virus Ia and Ib coinfection may have accounted for the prolonged and severe course of illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Twenty to 40% of cases of acute transverse myelitis are attributed to viral infections, although the specific viral etiology is only rarely identified.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A positive IgM in a patient with a likely other etiology for hepatic disease or an asymptomatic patient can be followed with HAV IgM and HAV total antibody.[clinicaladvisor.com]


  • Epidemiological evidence and trace-back investigations linked the outbreak to the consumption of a berry mix cake.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recent studies suggest that several African countries could be in epidemiological transitions due to the evident socio-economic development.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These findings reinforce the challenge facing routine clinical diagnosis in complex epidemiological scenarios.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To describe an epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection among injecting drug users in Aberdeen, Scotland.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiology of the infection is directly related to drinking water access and adequate disposal of sewage water.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Results: Meningoencephalitis or myelitis associated with hepatitis A virus is uncommon, and its pathophysiology is unknown.[n.neurology.org]
  • Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 78. Updated by: Michael M.[medlineplus.gov]


  • Author information 1 Department of Preventive Medicine, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea. 2 Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Gangneung, Korea. 3 Department of Preventive Medicine[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If we want to interrupt this chain and prevent further infections, we need to strengthen local prevention and control practices”, Ammon explains. “There are now highly effective drugs available for people infected with hepatitis B and C.[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • This highlights the importance of maintaining antiretroviral therapy throughout the acute phase of hepatitis A and of preventing HAV infection through active immunization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • How Can I Prevent It? Avoid eating raw oysters or other raw or undercooked shellfish.[foodsafety.gov]

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