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Hepatitis C Virus


Presentation

  • This study presents clinical scenarios of HCV-infected patients with hematologic malignancies, focusing on diagnosis, clinical and laboratory presentations, complications, and DAA therapy. An up-to-date treatment algorithm is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This present case highlights the awareness of HCV reactivation and the management of complex situation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of optic and brainstem demyelinating disorder associated with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If antiviral therapy was performed earlier for the present case and viral elimination was achieved, hepatocellular carcinoma might not have developed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 56-year-old man with behavioural disorders and facial-brachio-crural right hemiparesis presented with a brain lesion studied with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and brain biopsy, leading to the diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspnea
  • RESULTS: In the 6MWT test we observed significant subjective (dyspnea: 58.3% pretreatment vs 27.6% posttreatment, P .018; fatigue: 96.6% pretreatment vs 51.7% posttreatment, P .0001) and objective improvement (distance: 415.4 meters pretreatment vs 505.2[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pneumonia
  • Herein, we report use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for HCV clearance prior to lung transplantation in a patient with usual interstitial pneumonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Microscopic Hematuria
  • Her renal findings included microscopic hematuria, moderate proteinuria and endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis (EnPGN) on renal biopsy. Serum cryoglobulins comprised mixed monoclonal cryoglobulins characterized by IgM kappa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She presented with hypertension, microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, renal dysfunction, purpura, and arthralgia at the age of 61. She also had hypocomplementemia and cryoglobulinemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Responsiveness Decreasing
  • . : Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C. Nat. Med. 6(5),578–582 ( 2000 ).[doi.org]
Spastic Gait
  • Neurological examination disclosed a grade 4 spastic paraparesis, lower limb hyperreflexia, right positive Hoffmann sign, bilateral Babinski sign and spastic gait only possible with bilateral support.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Babinski Sign
  • Neurological examination disclosed a grade 4 spastic paraparesis, lower limb hyperreflexia, right positive Hoffmann sign, bilateral Babinski sign and spastic gait only possible with bilateral support.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Hyponatremia
  • Regarding clinical status she tolerated this treatment well, with the exception of transient severe hyponatremia requiring substitution.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Treponema Pallidum
  • BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Treponema pallidum (TP) infections are considered classic transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • AIM: To determine risk factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment failure after direct acting antivirals in patients with complex treatment histories.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Furthermore, he received subsequent treatment with direct antiviral agents (DAAs). Results The patient achieved a complete response after sorafenib treatment was initiated. Sorafenib treatment was terminated 1 year after complete response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The overall median follow-up period is 12 months after treatment initiation. RESULTS: All treatment regimens were tolerable for all patients, with no reported major adverse events during treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] placebo (placebo-deferred treatment arm).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] during last 2 months of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Genotypes HCV-1: most common overall HCV-2: HCV-3: HCV-4: more common in Africa HCV-5: HCV-6: Treatment and prognosis Vaccination has not been developed for the virus.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Links: epidemiology transmission clinical features diagnosis and further investigation treatment prognosis practical suggestions to help prevention in primary care predictors of disease progression hepatitis C virus testing in primary care hepatitis C[gpnotebook.co.uk]
  • Prognosis of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) The probable outcome of a viral infection depends a lot of what type of the hepatitis C virus you are infected with.[myvmc.com]
  • What is the Long Term Prognosis for Hepatitis C? What is Hepatitis C? Discovered in 1989, Hepatitis C is a contagious disease which is caused by a virus that infects the liver.[hepatitiscentral.com]
  • Waidmann, Severe 25‐hydroxyvitamin D deficiency identifies a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma – a prospective cohort study, Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 39, 10, (1204-1212), (2014).[doi.org]

Etiology

  • Abstract Scleromyxedema (SM) is a chronic and progressive fibromucinous disease with no known etiology. We report a patient with scleromyxedema associated with hepatitis C virus, successfully treated with interferon and ribavirin therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a primary etiological factor for the development of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major etiologic agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis. HCV infection frequently causes chronic hepatitis, which progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.[doi.org]
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major etiologic agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis. HCV infection frequently causes chronic hepatitis, which progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bradley, DW, Maynard, JE 1986 Etiology and natural history of post-transfusion and enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis Semin Liver Dis 6 56 66 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 8.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Information on their past transmission and epidemiology might be obtained by estimation of the time of divergence of the different genotypes of HCV, HBV and HGV/GBV–C using knowledge of their rates of sequence change.[doi.org]
  • In this paper, we study the molecular epidemiology of HCV genotype 2 in its region of endemic origin, west and central Africa. Our analysis includes 56 new and highly diverse HCV isolates sampled from infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau.[doi.org]
  • These data may assist in understanding the global epidemiology of HCV and the mechanisms by which it has spread.[doi.org]
  • We show that the rarely sequenced HCV region (E2P7NS2) is more informative for molecular epidemiology studies than the more commonly used NS5B region.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 65 (9) 732-741 33 Raison C L, Capuron L, Miller A H.[doi.org]
  • Pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12(2):96-102. [ Links ] 65. Blackard JT, Shata MT, Shire NJ, Sherman KE. Acute hepatitis C virus infection: a chronic problem.[scielo.org.co]
  • Pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease. Trends Microbiol. 12 : 96-102. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 28. Phan, T., R. K. Beran, C. Peters, I. C. Lorenz, and B. D. Lindenbach. 2009.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease. Trends Microbiol. 12 : 96 -102. 28. Phan, T., R. K. Beran, C. Peters, I. C. Lorenz, and B. D. Lindenbach. 2009.[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • OBJECTIVES: Determination of the true burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among high-risk groups relies heavily on occurrence measures such as prevalence, which are vital for implementation of preventive action plans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because there is no vaccine and no post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the focus of primary prevention efforts should be safer blood supply in the developing world, safe injection practices in health care and other settings, and decreasing the number of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These results could explain why cesarean section is ineffective in preventing vertical HCV transmission and guide the development of interventions to avert pediatric HCV infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Today, chronic HCV infection should not prevent a patient from receiving cancer therapy or participating in clinical trials of chemotherapy because most infected patients can achieve virologic cure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Therefore, use of an IFN-free regimen of direct-acting antivirals for HCV might prevent the extrahepatic manifestation of an immune disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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