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Human Immunodeficiency Virus


Presentation

  • His immunohistochemical diagnosis presented Castleman's disease in plasmacytic/diffuse form.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Decreased Breath Sounds
  • Examination revealed oral thrush, decreased breath sounds and crackles on the right lower lung base. Imaging showed a large right perihilar mass with multiple lytic lesions involving thoracic and lumber vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and clavicles.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • effusion caused by T. marneffei and diagnosed by thoracoscopic pleural biopsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Mass
  • Case History A 53-year-old HIV-infected male presented with an abdominal mass. The patient had a history of treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy. A LAWH was diagnosed based on physical examination and findings of computed tomography.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Ankle Pain
  • We report a case of a 35 year old Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive Kenyan male of Kikuyu ethnicity from Kiambu County who presented to hospital with a 6 day history of bilateral knee pain and swelling, bilateral ankle pain with right ankle swelling[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Knee Effusion
  • Analysis of fluid from knee effusion showed no evidence of tuberculosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Knee Pain
  • We report a case of a 35 year old Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive Kenyan male of Kikuyu ethnicity from Kiambu County who presented to hospital with a 6 day history of bilateral knee pain and swelling, bilateral ankle pain with right ankle swelling[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Subcutaneous Nodule
  • Sites of infection were found from blood culture, as subcutaneous nodules, or from lymph node biopsy. Fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, anaemia and weight loss were common characteristics in most infected patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cervical Enlargement
  • We report two unusual cases of men presenting cervical enlarged lymph nodes that were believed to be infectious.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Communicating Hydrocephalus
  • Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Convulsions
  • Ten days after admission, he developed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions; on examination he had ipsilateral facial nerve palsy and an oral ulcer, and responded well to benzathine penicillin treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Further workup was performed to rule out inflammatory or infectious conditions by blood and cerebrospinal fluid examinations.[stroke.ahajournals.org]
  • : HIV infection with AIDS-defining opportunistic infections These 3 categories are further subdivided on the basis of the CD4 T-cell count, as follows: 500/µL: Categories A1, B1, C1 200-400/µL: Categories A2, B2, C2 200/µL: Categories A3, B3, C3 See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Mediastinal Mass
Penicillium
  • Penicillium marneffei infection was confirmed by sputum culture, blood culture and tissue biopsy. After definite diagnosis, one refused further treatment, and others showed significant improvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fusarium
  • Fusarium species are known to cause disseminated cutaneous lesions in immunocompromised patients. Some cases of fusariosis are reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • effusion caused by T. marneffei and diagnosed by thoracoscopic pleural biopsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Thus, patients with MT-2-positive virus have limited benefit from treatment with single nucleoside analogues. Knowledge of MT-2 cell tropism may be important in clinical trials and for choosing treatments for patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • In acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, KS has an aggressive course and carries poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We therefore believe it is important to inelude BCH in the spectrum of likely pulmonary radiological signs in the HlV-infected population, though further studies must be done to assess the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of BCH.[archbronconeumol.org]

Etiology

  • Its etiology remains unknown, although isolated familial cases have suggested that acquired and inherited forms of the disease may exist.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Use Additional Use Additional Help Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10data.com]

Epidemiology

  • A beneficial compendium for those dealing with pulmonary complications of HIV infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Lung - surveys current knowledge on the epidemiology of HIV infection - examines HIV's effects on lung cells in addition to immune[beck-shop.de]
  • F.C. managed the subject and collected epidemiological data. J.-C.P., V.L. and F.D. monitored the subject's virologic status. J.-C.P, M.L., J.E.D., F.D.O., D.L.R. and F.S. wrote the paper.[doi.org]
  • Related information Epidemiological data and reports HIV in Queensland - annual reports by Queensland Health.[disease-control.health.qld.gov.au]
  • Epidemiologic aspects of the current outbreak of Kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infections. N Engl J Med 1982;306:248-52. Fainstein V, Bolivar R, Mavligit G, Rios A, Luna M.[cdc.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The data presented here lead to a better understanding of the consequences of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of HIV infection and also enable us to evaluate the potential use of antioxidant molecules as therapeutic agents against AIDS.[doi.org]
  • A second gap is found in the understanding of the pathophysiology of HANDs. This review addresses this and discusses the animal models that have helped to elucidate these mechanisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of IRIS is not completely understood, but may be the manifestation of an immune system that is "waking up" and responding to large amounts of antigen it did not recognize before.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • The term HIV-associated vasculopathy is not well defined, but suggested to denote all indirect or direct vessel changes (both extra and intracranial) caused by HIV infection, after excluding secondary infectious or neoplastic cause. 4 The pathophysiology[stroke.ahajournals.org]

Prevention

  • Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. zengyicdc@sina.com.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Secondary chemoprophylaxis is used to prevent the recurrence of an infection that has already occurred. Primary prevention Early disease (WHO stages 1-3). The type of infection will depend on local disease prevalence.[patient.info]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in the United States—2014: A clinical practice guideline. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . . Accessed July 27, 2014.[uwhealth.org]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settings: Basic Expectations for Safe Care. In: Services DoHaH, editor. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016.[ada.org]

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