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Human Metapneumovirus

HMPV


Presentation

  • Consequently, it seems necessary to better characterize hMPV infections in adult inpatients: presentation, course profile and risk factors for morbidity and mortality.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • The under-2 patients more frequently presented cough, rhinitis, apnoea and difficulty breathing, with statistically significant differences found ( p 0.001); meanwhile those over 2 more frequently presented seizures and fever ( p 0.005).[elsevier.es]
  • Children with respiratory infections frequently present to primary care.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The demographic and clinical data presented in this study improves our understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical burden of hMPV infection in adults. Voir l'article[fondation-merieux.org]
  • We recommend that you include samples from each age group in your clinical studies and present the data stratified by age (e.g., less than 5, 6- 21, 22-59, and greater than 60 years old) in addition to the overall data summary table. 6.G.v Presentation[fda.gov]
Localized Pain
  • This response causes the classic symptoms of a "cold," including local pain, low-grade fever, cough, runny nose, headache and sore throat.[lung.org]
Shivering
  • HMPV infections were associated with cough, fever/shivers and pneumonia, respectively.[journals.plos.org]
Weight Loss
  • In children under the age of 1 year, lower body temperature and weight loss are also seen. How Serious Is hMPV? In general, hPMV is not serious.[lung.org]
Malaise
  • The Influenza-like illness case definition is a sudden onset of symptoms with at least one of the following systemic symptoms: fever or feverishness, malaise, headache, myalgia and at least one of the following respiratory symptoms: cough, sore throat[journals.plos.org]
High Fever
  • Cough, sore throat, runny nose, and high fever are most common. Wheezing, difficulty breathing (dyspnea), pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, conjunctivitis, and inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media) each occur in 10% or more of patients.[medicinenet.com]
Hoarseness
  • More severe illness, with wheezing, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, cough, pneumonia, and in adults, aggravation of asthma, also has been reported.[dph.illinois.gov]
  • In adult, HMPV usually causes mild disease characterised by cough, hoarseness, runny nose and sputum production.[chp.gov.hk]
  • Recognizing hMPV Infants and young children infected with hMPV demonstrate signs and symptoms similar to RSV: cough, wheezing, myalgia, dyspnea, tachypnea, rhinorrhea, and pyrexia. 8 In adults, signs and symptoms include nasal congestion, cough, rhinorrhea, hoarseness[journals.lww.com]
  • Laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) was defined as an acute lower respiratory tract infection characterized by hoarseness, cough, and stridor.[nejm.org]
Decreased Breath Sounds
  • Pneumonia was defined as dyspnea in a patient with focal rales or decreased breath sounds and the presence of a focal infiltrate on the chest radiograph.[nejm.org]
Stridor
  • Laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) was defined as an acute lower respiratory tract infection characterized by hoarseness, cough, and stridor.[nejm.org]
Acute Cough
  • The natural history of acute cough in children aged 0 to 4 years in primary care: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2002; 52 :401–409. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 3. Van den Hoogen BG, de Jong JC, Groen J, et al.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Febrile Convulsions
  • Some children may also present with otitis media, diarrhoea, vomiting, rash, and febrile convulsion. In adult, HMPV usually causes mild disease characterised by cough, hoarseness, runny nose and sputum production.[chp.gov.hk]
Asthenia
  • Clinical symptoms of hMPV infection are close to that of RSV, with influenza-like illness (fever, asthenia and curvatures) associated with signs of upper and/or lower respiratory tracts infection.[clinicaltrials.gov]
Confusion
  • It circulates in the community during influenza seasons and its clinical appearance can be confused with influenza symptoms. However, further research is needed to elucidate the quantitative and qualitative importance of hMPV infections.[eurosurveillance.org]
Convulsions
  • Some children may also present with otitis media, diarrhoea, vomiting, rash, and febrile convulsion. In adult, HMPV usually causes mild disease characterised by cough, hoarseness, runny nose and sputum production.[chp.gov.hk]

Treatment

  • Palivizumab (monoclonal antibody to RSV) is not effective for treatment.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Supportive treatment for patients varies with the severity of the illness but generally treatment consists of fever reducers, antihistamines, breathing treatments and other means of providing comfort to the patient until the illness resolves.[idph.state.il.us]
  • To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results.[mendeley.com]
  • Currently, treatment of hMPV-associated lower respiratory tract infections is mainly symptomatic.[clinicaltrials.gov]

Prognosis

Etiology

  • Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections among children in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2002;35(4):283-91. [ Links ] 38. Escobar C, Luchsinger V, de Oliveira DB, Durigon E, Chnaiderman J, Avendaño LF.[scielo.br]
  • The etiologic and epidemiologic spectrum of bronchiolitis in pediatric practice. J Pediatr 1979 ;95: 183 - 190 3. Hall CB, Walsh EE, Schnabel KC, et al.[nejm.org]
  • The etiologic agents of bronchiolitis include adenovirus, influenza and parainfluenza viruses, and Bordetella pertussis. However, most infections are due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ( 2 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Glaser CA, Honarmand S, Anderson LJ, Schnurr DP, Forghani B, Cossen CK, Schuster FL, Christie LJ, Tureen JH 2006 Beyond viruses: clinical profiles and etiologies associated with encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 43 : 1565–1577 39.[nature.com]
  • "Human Metapneumovirus Infection Plays an Etiologic Role in Acute Asthma Exacerbations Requiring Hospitalization in Adults". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 192 (7): 1149–1153. doi : 10.1086/444392. ISSN 0022-1899. PMC 1476781. PMID 16136455.[en.wikipedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • Because human metapneumovirus is a newly recognized pathogen, many clinicians are unfamiliar with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs and symptoms of infection.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Human metapneumovirus infection in Jordanian children: epidemiology and risk factors for severe disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 34 (2015), pp. 1335-1341 [9] J.V. Williams, S.J. Tollefson, P.W. Heymann, H.T. Carper, J. Patrie, J.E. Crowe.[elsevier.es]
  • Animal studies have been conducted but no human studies have been performed. 9 The CDC closely follows hMPV trending to assist with understanding the virus' infection burden and epidemiology. 1 Patient education While awaiting diagnosis and after the[journals.lww.com]
  • Through serologic testing, the authors demonstrated that this was a newly discovered but not newly emerged virus. 1 Epidemiology. The epidemiology of hMPV has been described using seroprevalence, PCR, and cell culture.[nature.com]
  • The etiologic and epidemiologic spectrum of bronchiolitis in pediatric practice. J Pediatr 1979 ;95: 183 - 190 3. Hall CB, Walsh EE, Schnabel KC, et al.[nejm.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Prevention and Treatment Currently, there is no specific antiviral therapy to treat HMPV and no vaccine to prevent HMPV. Medical care is supportive.[cdc.gov]
  • Prevention Vaccine is not available at the moment.[chp.gov.hk]
  • Schweon is an infection prevention consultant in Saylorsburg, Pa. The author has disclosed that he has no financial relationships related to this article.[journals.lww.com]

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