Hurthle cell carcinoma is rare, but usually, an aggressive tumor of the thyroid gland, as it possesses a rather high rate of metastatic spread compared to other thyroid malignancies. Dysphagia, dyspnea, voice changes and an apparent mass in the neck are main findings. The initial diagnosis can be made through a thorough clinical exam, ultrasonography, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy, but a histological exam showing > 75% of hurthle cells is necessary in order to confirm this malignancy.
Hurthle cells (large, polygonal and well-demarcated cells containing a granular cytoplasm, a large hyperchromatic nucleus, and a prominent nucleolus) are considered to be a rather common finding on histological samples of thyroid nodules, which are present in up to 8% of the population . Many different disorders of the thyroid gland have been associated with the appearance of hurthle cells, including chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT), Graves' disease, and multinodular goiter, but also a range of benign and malignant neoplasms   . Hurthle cell carcinoma accounts for < 5% of all differentiated thyroid tumors and is suspected when the biopsy specimen contains > 75% of hurthle cells, with the absence of a complete lesional capsule     . Hurthle cell carcinoma must be included in the differential diagnosis when patients present with a hard and immobile mass that may be accompanied by dysphagia, voice changes, or even dyspnea , the reason being mechanical compression of the esophagus and/or the trachea. Unfortunately, hurthle cell carcinoma is known for its potentially aggressive clinical course with a higher rate of metastatic spread when compared with other malignancies of the thyroid gland, and in addition to male gender and increased age, both being established as poor prognostic factors, the size of the tumor is important in determining the survival rates .
Entire Body System
Keywords : Adenocarcinoma, Goiter, Mononeuropathies, Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Thyroid Neoplasms. Introduction Diffuse toxic goiter a common autoimmune thyroid disease, usually presents with clinical features of thyrotoxicosis. [casereports.in]
Patients with multinodular goiter or those who have ... [accesssurgery.mhmedical.com]
High frequency real-time ultrasonography revealed a goiterous left thyroid gland devoid of any intraglandular calcifications. No regional lymph nodes were seen. [njcponline.com]
FTC is more common in areas of iodine-deficient endemic goiter and more prevalent in African Americans than in Asians or Caucasians [ 3 ]. [kjim.org]
Predictors of noncompliance with ATA guidelines for treatment with radioactive implants or radioisotopes were age 65 years (OR, 1.31; P .017), diagnosis between 1988 and 1997, no surgery, and partial thyroidectomy (OR, 1.81, 19.48, and 4.02, respectively [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
History Play ENTRENus Play ENTRENuk Play ENTRENau Meanings of "hurthle cell carcinoma of thyroid" in Turkish English Dictionary : 1 result(s) Category English Turkish Medical 1 Medical hurthle cell carcinoma of thyroid tiroid bezinin hurthle hücreli kanseri [tureng.com]
Asymptomatic patients require thyroxine supplementation to manage hypothyroidism and mild dysphagia. Surgical intervention is required in dysphagia, respiratory obstruction, haemorrhage, and, rarely, malignancy. [karger.com]
Dysphagia, dyspnea, voice changes and an apparent mass in the neck are main findings. [symptoma.com]
Symptoms The signs and symptoms of Hürthle cell thyroid cancer are similar to other types of cancer of the thyroid gland and may include: A growth or lump on the thyroid gland (at the base of the neck) A chronic hoarse voice Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing [news-medical.net]
When referred to a hospital, he did not complain of cough, dysphagia or pain. A thorax computed tomography (CT) scan showed non-unusual disease in the lungs and the mediastinum. [academic.oup.com]
In ATC local compression symptoms such as hoarseness, strider, dyspnoea and dysphagia occur as a rule [ 15 – 17 ]. [wjso.biomedcentral.com]
- Pelvic Mass
In this case report, a patient with a history of thyroid Hurthle cell carcinoma presented with what seemingly appeared to be a pelvic mass of gynecological origin, with a raised risk-of-malignancy index of 567. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Face, Head & Neck
- Neck Mass
In elderly patients with sudden enlargement of neck mass and pre-existing thyroid conditions such as benign thyroid nodule, goitre (as in our case), Grave's disease or differentiated thyroid carcinoma, one has to bear in mind anaplastic thyroid carcinoma [wjso.biomedcentral.com]
In 1986, Har-El et al. reported that after incomplete resection and EBRT of inoperable neck mass a patient survived 14 years . Foote et al. from the Mayo Clinic stated that HCTC is a radiosensitive tumor . [bmccancer.biomedcentral.com]
- Fine Tremor
Her hands were warm and there was fine tremor, No eye signs of Graves’ disease were elicited. Pulse rate was 100/minute, high volume and BP 180/90mm Hg, afebrile. No signs detected over heart, chest or abdomen. [casereports.in]
- Limb Weakness
Final diagnosis was diffuse toxic goiter/ Hurthle cell neoplasm with pulmonary metastasis/ lower limb weakness due to mononeuritis multiplex, likely a paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome. [casereports.in]
Mononeuropathy multiplex (AAEE case report #11) Muscle Nerve. 1985;8(6):493-498. Kelkar P, Parry GJ. Mononeuritis multiplex in Diabetes Mellitus: evidence for underlying immune pathogenesis. [casereports.in]
Case reported by Hyar et al. describes a woman with papillary carcinoma of thyroid and paraneoplastic myoclonus [ 2 ]. [casereports.in]
An early diagnosis of hurthle cell carcinoma may significantly improve patient outcomes, which is why physicians must obtain a detailed patient history and conduct a thorough physical examination . The presence of previously mentioned symptoms of dysphagia/dyspnea and detection of a palpable mass in the neck mandates a more advanced workup. Ultrasonography of the neck is a valuable initial tool in the assessment of thyroid masses (and examination of proximal lymph node spread), but because both hypoechoic and hyperechoic (and sometimes isoechoic) appearance of hurthle cell carcinoma has been observed (as well as marked variations in vascularity of the tumor) , the use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is imperative    . When an abundance of hurthle cells is observed in biopsy samples (>75%), a lesion of > 4 cm is highly suggestive of a hurthle cell carcinoma , in which case additional imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are recommended for assessing potential spread to the adjacent structures in the neck and distal organs . To solidify the diagnosis, a histological examination must show capsular and/or vascular invasion of the tumor  .
OBJECTIVES: There is controversy about the prognosis of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. The purpose of this project is to report the outcome of a well-defined group of patients treated at a single institution in the modern era. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
However, more precise molecular, genetic, and histopathologic characterization of Hürthle cell tumors has led us to recognize that while Hürthle cell carcinoma carries a worse prognosis as compared to papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the prognosis of Hürthle [accesssurgery.mhmedical.com]
Use Additional Use Additional Help Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology. [icd10data.com]
Etiology HIDS is an autosomal recessively inherited syndrome caused by mutations in the mevalonate kinase ( MVK ) gene. Due to this mutation HIDS patients have MVK enzymes with reduced, but not abolished activity. [orpha.net]
Key words: hyperammonemia, etiology, congenital hyperammonemia, inborn errors of metabolism, urea cycle disorders. REFERENCIAS Arnold-Almaráz-K., Olivares-Sandoval-Z., Francisco-Revilla- Estivill-N. [medigraphic.com]
Note Widely invasive oncocytic thyroid carcinoma Etiology Unknown. The precise cellular derangements that lead to the abnormal accumulation of mitochondria in oncocytes and tumor development are obscure. [atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
Etiology Virtually all patients with the syndrome have mutations in the gene for mevalonate kinase, which is part of the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, an important cellular metabolic pathway. [slideshare.net]
We aimed to clarify this controversy by analyzing HCC survival over a 35-year period using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. METHODS: Cases of HCC and FCC were extracted from the SEER-9 database (1975-2009). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database identified patients with HCFC and non-HCFC from 1988 to 1993 who were followed to 2001. [surgjournal.com]
Methods Data for all cases of Hürthle cell carcinoma that occurred between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 1998, were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. [jamanetwork.com]
The extracted information was categorized as 1) host/parasite interaction: the pathophysiological aspects; 2) clinical-pathological features; 3) diagnosis; and 4) therapy. [scielo.br]
Hyperammonemia in review: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27(2):207-22. Bireley WR, Van Hove JL, Gallagher RC, Fenton LZ. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome. [medigraphic.com]
The hemozoin and other toxic factors such as glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) stimulate macrophages and other cells to produce cytokines and other soluble factors which act to produce fever and rigors and probably influence other severe pathophysiology [cdc.gov]
Pathophysiology No widely accepted paradigm exists for the pathogenesis of follicular and Hürthle cell cancer of the thyroid. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Aside from these, blood tests for thyroglobulin, a cancerous tumor marker produced by Hurthle cells, may be done to monitor your condition and prevent recurring cancer. [newhealthadvisor.com]
How can I prevent Hürthle cell carcinoma? As most cases of Hürthle cell carcinoma are not linked with any risk factors, there is usually no way to prevent it. [oncolink.org]
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- Bhattacharyya N. Survival and prognosis in Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129(2):207-210.
- Maizlin ZV, Wiseman SM, Vora P, et al. Hurthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid: sonographic appearance and histologic characteristics. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27(5):751–757. quiz 759