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Hydroxyurea

Hydroxycarbamid


Presentation

  • On cessation of HU the DM-LE clears avoiding unnecessary immunosuppression and demonstrating the importance of consideration of medication aetiology in DM presentations. We present a case report and review of the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An 18-year-old woman with sickle cell anemia presents with recurrent painful crises, and treatment with hydroxyurea is recommended. Hydroxyurea causes a shift toward the production of red cells containing fetal hemoglobin.[dx.doi.org]
Atrial Septal Defect
  • KEYWORDS: Atrial septal defect; paradoxical embolization; patent foramen ovale; primary stroke; sickle cell anemia; stroke[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported with many drugs, either as an extension of a hypnotic effect (e.g. central nervous system depressants) or as an idiosyncratic response of the patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Respiratory Insufficiency
  • We describe intrathoracic and symptomatic pelvic EH masses in a 48-year-old woman and intrathoracic bilateral masses causing respiratory insufficiency with pleural effusion in a 42-year-old male, both affected by thalassaemia intermedia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • We describe intrathoracic and symptomatic pelvic EH masses in a 48-year-old woman and intrathoracic bilateral masses causing respiratory insufficiency with pleural effusion in a 42-year-old male, both affected by thalassaemia intermedia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Foot Ulcer
  • Here we describe a diabetic patient with foot ulcer associated with HU treatment for polycythemia vera, who was treated successfully with hyperbaric oxygen and general wound care after discontinuation of HU.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Proximal Muscle Weakness
  • There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of proximal muscle weakness. Cessation of hydroxyurea was associated with remarkable improvement of the skin lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Social Isolation
  • MMAS-8 scores positively correlated with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) (r s 0.34, P 0.04) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (r s 0.42, P 0.01) and inversely correlated with fatigue (r s -0.45, P 0.01), depression (r s -0.3, P 0.08), and social isolation (r s[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Recurrent Headache
  • Our first case had platelets 1,500,000/mm(3), and a second child was symptomatic with recurrent headache. Both responded well to therapy with hydroxyurea (dose 15-30 mg/kg/day) and tolerated it well.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Albuminuria
  • Albuminuria normalized in 37.5% (6/16) after 1 year and 61% (8/13) after 2 years of HU therapy. Among those without albuminuria prior to HU, 13% (6/47) developed albuminuria during HU therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Macrocytosis
  • […] patients develop some toxicity , which may occur at any time during a course of treatment: Leucopaenia (reduced white cell count) Anaemia (reduced red cell count) Thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet count) Pancytopaenia (reduction in all blood cell types) Macrocytosis[dermnetnz.org]
  • The macrocytosis which occurs in almost all patients on hydroxyurea may contribute as these macrocytes circulate poorly through the capillary network.[omicsonline.org]
  • You may be given folic acid supplements to prevent a side effect called macrocytosis which is an enlarging of red blood cells.[oncolink.org]
Pleural Effusion
  • We describe intrathoracic and symptomatic pelvic EH masses in a 48-year-old woman and intrathoracic bilateral masses causing respiratory insufficiency with pleural effusion in a 42-year-old male, both affected by thalassaemia intermedia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Complete remission was observed after 6 to 10 weeks of imiquimod 5% (10 mg/cm of skin cancer) treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Technique Follow-Up Studies Humans Hydroxyurea/pharmacology* Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy* Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology Male Mice Mice, Inbred NOD Mice, SCID Middle Aged Mutation/genetics Neoplasm Staging Prognosis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We know that patients who have intolerance to hydroxyurea, due to hematologic toxicity, are patients defined in a couple of studies as having a worse prognosis.[targetedonc.com]
  • Awareness of the possibility of necrotizing fasciitis following hip replacements is warranted in patients with MPNs on hydroxyurea as the prognosis is poor without early aggressive treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement.[omicsonline.org]
  • , Robert Girot , Jacqueline Mandelbaum Haematologica July 2008 93: 988-993; doi: 10.3324/haematol.11515 Abstract Background Recent progress in the treatment of sickle cell disease, in particular the use of hydroxyurea, has considerably modified the prognosis[haematologica.org]
  • Survival and prognosis among 1545 patients with contemporary polycythemia vera: an international study. Leukemia. 2013;27:1874–81. View Article PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar Bjorkholm M, Hultcrantz M, Derolf AR.[ehoonline.biomedcentral.com]

Etiology

  • Acknowledgements Supported by the Office of the Secretary of Health for the State of Rio de Janeiro and the Brazilian Ministry of Health References Steinberg MH (2008) Sickle cell anemia, the first molecular disease: overview of molecular etiology, pathophysiology[omicsonline.org]
  • The etiologies of DM-LE, HU-NMSC, and HUSD are not fully elucidated; however, they appear to share similar mechanisms involving direct effects of both HU and UVR.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Development of new painful oral ulcers, histo-pathologic findings of which were not unlike those in the colon led us to suspect that etiology of ulcers at these various sites was the same.[bmcgastroenterol.biomedcentral.com]
  • The underlying etiology is thought to be an infarctive event secondary to large-vessel stenosis or occlusion ( 4 ).[ajnr.org]

Epidemiology

  • Bronx, NY, United States. 3 Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States. 4 Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Bronx, NY, United States. 5 Dept. of Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Felix AA, Souza HM, Ribeiro SB (2010) Epidemiologic and social aspects of sickle cell disease (in Portuguese). Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 32: 203-208.[omicsonline.org]
  • Carrying out the Public Health Research Epidemiology and Surveillance for Hemoglobinopathies (PHRESH) project in California, Georgia and Mississippi, which will strengthen and improve upon the information gathering strategies developed in RuSH to help[cdc.gov]
  • Epidemiology of psoriasis. In: Sharma VK, editor. Practical guidelines for the management of psoriasis. 1st ed. New Delhi: Department of Dermatology and Venereology, AIIMS, New Delhi; 2002. p. 1-3. 2. Kumar B, Saraswat A, Kaur I.[web.archive.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • However, elucidation of the multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to vaso-occlusion and tissue injury in SCD has now resulted in a burgeoning effort to identify new treatment modalities to prevent or ameliorate the consequences of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Inati A, Koussa S, Taher A, Perrine S (2008) Sickle cell disease: new insights into pathophysiology and treatment. Pediatr Ann 37: 311-321.[omicsonline.org]
  • Marvelle Brown, Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassaemia: Pathophysiology, Care And Management, Haematology Nursing, (117-149), (2013) ., Spezielle Arzneimitteltherapie in der Schwangerschaft, Arzneimittel in Schwangerschaft und Stillzeit, 10.1016/B978-3-[doi.org]
  • OBJECTIVES After participating in this activity, the participant will demonstrate the ability to: - Describe the basic pathophysiology of a vaso-occlusive crisis. - Describe the role of hemoglobin F in sickle cell disease. - Outline the evidence of hydroxyurea[hopkinsmedicine.org]

Prevention

  • HU initiation for disease severity prevention decreases the prevalence of abnormal TCDi velocities. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Enzyme Inhibitors – Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] potentially lead to the formation of a malignant tumour, but DNA damage does not lead inevitably to the creation of cancerous cells. antimetabolite A substance which is structurally similar to a metabolite but which competes with it or replaces it, and so prevents[ebi.ac.uk]

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