Hyperpituitarism is a disease caused by pituitary gland hypersecretion, most commonly due to adenoma, leading to a series of abnormalities such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, or hyperadrenalism.
Hyperpituitarism causes two categories of symptoms: some caused by abnormal hormone secretion and others induced by the tumor itself. The latter consist of headaches and visual impairment, caused by optic nerve compression, or even hypopituitarism. If prolactin hypersecretion occurs in a pubertal girl, she will present with pubertal arrest. Galactorrhea may also be present in this case. Pubertal boys and prepubertal children complain about growth failure, visual impairment, and headaches, but the first category also experiences pubertal arrest . Medical history and physical examination reveal menstrual abnormalities, acanthosis nigricans, and gynecomastia, in addition to other traits of the disease the patients notice.
Excess growth hormone causes acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Gigantism presents as accelerated complete growth in children, whereas acromegaly is characterized by the growth of the extremities (fingers and toes) and facial coarsening , as well as occlusion changes and apertognathia  . Additional features include macrocephaly, prognathism, frontal bossing, irregular menses in women, and hyperhidrosis. The distance between teeth increases and the lips become thicker and darker . In adult patients, cardiac hypertrophy sets in during the progression of the disease. Uterine, prostate, and colon benign tumors seem to have an increased incidence in these patients. The physician must also keep in mind the fact that these patients are prone to develop diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathies, as well as muscular and articular disorders, and conduct an active surveillance in this area  .
If the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is involved, patient present with symptoms of excessive glucocorticoid secretion: hypertension, hirsutism, weight gain, acne, fatigability, and sleep apnea signs . The clinician is often able to highlight the presence of the typical Cushing facies, as well as a dorsal cervical fat pad and bruising.
Entire Body System
Muscle weakness, fatigue and lethargy. (Hotman Rumahardo, 2000: 39). Test and Diagnosis Serum prolactin levels ; ACTH, GH. CT - Scan / MRI. Measurement of visual field. Hormone tests. Angiography. Glucose tolerance test. [purba-java-indo.blogspot.com]
Side effects can include headaches, fatigue, and abnormal liver function. Dopamine agonists make up the third medication group. [niddk.nih.gov]
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism may include anxiety or nervousness, rapid heart rate, irregular heartbeats, exhaustion, fatigue, muscle weakness & loss of weight. [xpertdox.com]
Prolactin deficiency: In women, symptoms include lack of milk production, fatigue, and loss of underarm and pubic hair. No symptoms are seen in men. ADH deficiency: Symptoms include increased thirst and urination. [annbyers.yolasite.com]
For adults and children: muscle weakness and fatigue; sweating profusely; gaining weight; sinus congestion; oily skin; tongue size increases; voice sounds hollow; joint pain; oversleeping; tingling feeling in hands; unexpected mood changes. [azsymptoms.com]
Galactorrhea may also be present in this case. Pubertal boys and prepubertal children complain about growth failure, visual impairment, and headaches, but the first category also experiences pubertal arrest. [symptoma.com]
Abstract The early radiographic changes of the sella turcica in the cases of hypersecreting pituitary adenomas (Cushing disease, acromegaly, amenorrhea-galactorrhea) are reported and discussed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms of prolactinoma or galactorrhea may include tender breasts in women, breasts that begin to produce milk in non-pregnant women, reproductive dysfunctions, irregular periods, infertility, low sex drive, erectile dysfunction and low energy levels [xpertdox.com]
Pubertal females frequently present with symptoms of pubertal arrest or hypogonadism (with or without galactorrhea) due to suppression of gonadotropin secretion or local compression of the pituitary. [emedicine.medscape.com]
In women: Abnormal milk flow from the breast in a woman who is not pregnant or nursing ( galactorrhea ) Breast tenderness Decreased sexual interest Decreased peripheral vision Headache Infertility Stopping of menstruation not related to menopause, or [nlm.nih.gov]
- Antipsychotic Agent
4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 26 Serotonin Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 27 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 28 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 29 Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists [malacards.org]
A prospective study of hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents treated with atypical antipsychotic agents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2004. 14:350-358. [Medline]. Sakazume S, Obata K, Takahashi E, et al. [emedicine.com]
Pseudotumor cerebri after surgical remission of Cushing's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010. 95:1528-32. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Kunwar S, Wilson CB. Pediatric pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Dec. 84(12):4385-9. [Medline]. [emedicine.com]
- Buffalo Hump
hump ) Weakening of the bones, which leads to rib and spine fractures Weak muscles Women may have: Excess hair growth on the face, neck, chest, abdomen, and thighs Menstrual cycle that becomes irregular or stops Men may have: Decreased or no desire for [medlineplus.gov]
Hyperpituitarism workup should concentrate on detecting abnormal pituitary gland function based on whatever clinical findings the physician encounters. For instance, if hyperprolactinemia is suspected, serum prolactin should be measured several times if the obtained values are normal, but one determination is sufficient if a value above 200 ng/mL is found. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test can also be performed if a doubt exists, given that intravenous administration of TRH leads to an abrupt increase of prolactinemia 15 to 30 minutes later in normal individuals. Prolactinoma patients usually do not show this increase in prolactin serum levels.
A patient with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - releasing adenoma should undergo a urinary free cortisol excretion measurement, as well as a plasma cortisol determination. The first test accurately measures the cortisol secretion rate, while the second one needs to be interpreted based on the time the blood sample was drawn, keeping in mind that cortisol levels are normally highest from 6 to 8 AM and decline during the day. The lack of variation suggests Cushing disease. Additional investigations include the dexamethasone suppression testing and the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation testing in uncertain cases.
When growth hormone oversecretion is suspected, the following tests should be ordered: serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measurement, serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) dosage, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After 1.75-g/kg oral glucose ingestion (maximum 75g), the serum growth hormone level should decrease to less than 5 ng/dL within 3 hours in healthy individuals.
 Treatment (for hyperpituitarism) in the case of prolactinoma consists of long-term medical management. [en.wikipedia.org]
Surgical Care Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice for Cushing disease in children. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Treatment for Hyperpituitarism Treatment can consist of pituitary microsurgery to remove tumor. [healthguidance.org]
Outcome of surgical treatment of 200 children with Cushing's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar. 98(3):892-901. [Medline]. Melmed S, Jackson I, Kleinberg D, Klibanski A. Current treatment guidelines for acromegaly. [emedicine.com]
Prognosis The prognosis for an individual with either gigantism or acromegaly depends on how far the condition has advanced before successful treatment. Gigantism is generally not life-threatening, and the prognosis is usually good. [m.body-disease.com]
Determining of specific gene mutations at early diagnostic stage enables to establish proper prognosis and adjust the optimal treatment. [abstracts.eurospe.org]
Prognosis Because of the small number of people with gigantism, mortality and morbidity rates for this disease during childhood are unknown. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Prognosis The prognosis for hyperfunctioning pituitary tumors in children is very good. Medical therapy or transsphenoidal surgery are preferred methods of treatment. Radian S, Diekmann Y, Gabrovska P, et al. [emedicine.com]
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(See Etiology.) Regulation of the development of the mammalian anterior pituitary gland by transcription factors. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Etiology The hypersecretion of hGH that produces gigantism and acromegaly is typically due to benign, slow-growing glandular tumors, or adenomas, in the anterior pituitary. [m.body-disease.com]
Etiology Most cases occur sporadically. Some cases ( ∼ 5% ) have a genetic/familial association. [amboss.com]
1965) PubMed search builder options Subheadings: analysis anatomy and histology blood cerebrospinal fluid chemically induced classification complications congenital diagnosis diagnostic imaging diet therapy drug therapy economics embryology enzymology epidemiology [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epidemiology Pituitary adenomas account for about 15% of primary intracranial tumors. Peak incidence : 35–60 years Prevalence : ∼ 80 cases per 100,000 individuals References:  Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified. [amboss.com]
Among the many highlights of the Fifth Edition are: * An extensively updated chapter on the cellular and molecular biology of the neuron* An expanded chapter on the epidemiology and genetics of neuropsychiatric disorders* An extensively revised and expanded [books.google.com]
The epidemiology of prolactinomas. Pituitary. 2005. 8:3-6. [Medline]. Colao A, Loche S, Cappabianca P. Pituitary adenomas in children and adolescents. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapeutic strategies. [emedicine.com]
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 Carney syndrome Isolated familial acromegaly References:  Pathophysiology Pituitary adenomas are well circumscribed, intrasellar tumors with monomorphic, polygonal cells arranged in sheets or cords without any connective [amboss.com]
(See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) GH acts indirectly, by stimulating the formation of IGF hormones (also called somatomedins). [emedicine.medscape.com]
Pathophysiology Hypothalamic dysfunction clearly may promote tumor growth, but overwhelming evidence indicates intrinsic pituicyte genetic disruption leads to pituitary tumorigenesis. [emedicine.com]
Prevention There is no specific prevention for hyperpituitarism. Early treatment helps to prevent complications. [m.body-disease.com]
Prevention No way is known for preventing hyperpituitarism. Diagnosis Physical examination (to include visual-field exams) and patient history. [azsymptoms.com]
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Treatment and Prevention Treatment can consist of pituitary microsurgery to remove tumor ; pituitary radiation if surgery fails; gamma knife radiation treatment (a special type of focused radiation); bromocriptine (helps decrease growth hormone in some [diagnose-me.com]
Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. [niddk.nih.gov]
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- Lonser RR, Ksendzovsky A, Wind JJ, et al. Prospective evaluation of the characteristics and incidence of adenoma-associated dural invasion in Cushing disease. J Neurosurg. 2012;116(2):272-279.