Hyperpituitarism is a disease caused by pituitary gland hypersecretion, most commonly due to adenoma, leading to a series of abnormalities such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, or hyperadrenalism.
Hyperpituitarism causes two categories of symptoms: some caused by abnormal hormone secretion and others induced by the tumor itself. The latter consist of headaches and visual impairment, caused by optic nerve compression, or even hypopituitarism. If prolactin hypersecretion occurs in a pubertal girl, she will present with pubertal arrest. Galactorrhea may also be present in this case. Pubertal boys and prepubertal children complain about growth failure, visual impairment, and headaches, but the first category also experiences pubertal arrest . Medical history and physical examination reveal menstrual abnormalities, acanthosis nigricans, and gynecomastia, in addition to other traits of the disease the patients notice.
Excess growth hormone causes acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Gigantism presents as accelerated complete growth in children, whereas acromegaly is characterized by the growth of the extremities (fingers and toes) and facial coarsening , as well as occlusion changes and apertognathia  . Additional features include macrocephaly, prognathism, frontal bossing, irregular menses in women, and hyperhidrosis. The distance between teeth increases and the lips become thicker and darker . In adult patients, cardiac hypertrophy sets in during the progression of the disease. Uterine, prostate, and colon benign tumors seem to have an increased incidence in these patients. The physician must also keep in mind the fact that these patients are prone to develop diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathies, as well as muscular and articular disorders, and conduct an active surveillance in this area  .
If the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is involved, patient present with symptoms of excessive glucocorticoid secretion: hypertension, hirsutism, weight gain, acne, fatigability, and sleep apnea signs . The clinician is often able to highlight the presence of the typical Cushing facies, as well as a dorsal cervical fat pad and bruising.
Entire Body System
Symptoms of prolactinoma or galactorrhea may include tender breasts in women, breasts that begin to produce milk in non-pregnant women, reproductive dysfunctions, irregular periods, infertility, low sex drive, erectile dysfunction and low energy levels [xpertdox.com]
Pubertal females frequently present with symptoms of pubertal arrest or hypogonadism (with or without galactorrhea) due to suppression of gonadotropin secretion or local compression of the pituitary. [emedicine.medscape.com]
A prolactinoma can cause women who are not pregnant or nursing to experience tenderness of the breasts and start to produce breast milk (galactorrhea). Their menstrual periods may become irregular or might stop altogether. [my.clevelandclinic.org]
In females this causes lactation even when not pregnant ( galactorrhea ). The same can happen in men but it is rare. Breast swelling and enlargement may be seen in both genders and in men this is known as gynecomastia. [healthhype.com]
In women: Abnormal milk flow from the breast in a woman who is not pregnant or nursing ( galactorrhea ) Breast tenderness Decreased sexual interest Decreased peripheral vision Headache Infertility Stopping of menstruation not related to menopause, or [nlm.nih.gov]
Muscle weakness, fatigue and lethargy. (Hotman Rumahardo, 2000: 39). Test and Diagnosis Serum prolactin levels ; ACTH, GH. CT - Scan / MRI. Measurement of visual field. Hormone tests. Angiography. Glucose tolerance test. [purba-java-indo.blogspot.com]
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism may include anxiety or nervousness, rapid heart rate, irregular heartbeats, exhaustion, fatigue, muscle weakness & loss of weight. [xpertdox.com]
Prolactin deficiency: In women, symptoms include lack of milk production, fatigue, and loss of underarm and pubic hair. No symptoms are seen in men. ADH deficiency: Symptoms include increased thirst and urination. [annbyers.yolasite.com]
For adults and children: muscle weakness and fatigue; sweating profusely; gaining weight; sinus congestion; oily skin; tongue size increases; voice sounds hollow; joint pain; oversleeping; tingling feeling in hands; unexpected mood changes. [azsymptoms.com]
Side effects can include headaches, fatigue, and abnormal liver function. Dopamine agonists make up the third medication group. [niddk.nih.gov]
- Antipsychotic Agent
Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 29 Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4,Not Applicable 30 Paliperidone Palmitate Phase 4 31 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 32 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not [malacards.org]
A prospective study of hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents treated with atypical antipsychotic agents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2004. 14:350-358. [Medline]. Sakazume S, Obata K, Takahashi E, et al. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Pseudotumor cerebri after surgical remission of Cushing's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010. 95:1528-32. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Kunwar S, Wilson CB. Pediatric pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Dec. 84(12):4385-9. [Medline]. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Hyperpituitarism workup should concentrate on detecting abnormal pituitary gland function based on whatever clinical findings the physician encounters. For instance, if hyperprolactinemia is suspected, serum prolactin should be measured several times if the obtained values are normal, but one determination is sufficient if a value above 200 ng/mL is found. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test can also be performed if a doubt exists, given that intravenous administration of TRH leads to an abrupt increase of prolactinemia 15 to 30 minutes later in normal individuals. Prolactinoma patients usually do not show this increase in prolactin serum levels.
A patient with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - releasing adenoma should undergo a urinary free cortisol excretion measurement, as well as a plasma cortisol determination. The first test accurately measures the cortisol secretion rate, while the second one needs to be interpreted based on the time the blood sample was drawn, keeping in mind that cortisol levels are normally highest from 6 to 8 AM and decline during the day. The lack of variation suggests Cushing disease. Additional investigations include the dexamethasone suppression testing and the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation testing in uncertain cases.
When growth hormone oversecretion is suspected, the following tests should be ordered: serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measurement, serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) dosage, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After 1.75-g/kg oral glucose ingestion (maximum 75g), the serum growth hormone level should decrease to less than 5 ng/dL within 3 hours in healthy individuals.
Surgical Care Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice for Cushing disease in children. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Outcome of surgical treatment of 200 children with Cushing's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar. 98(3):892-901. [Medline]. Melmed S, Jackson I, Kleinberg D, Klibanski A. Current treatment guidelines for acromegaly. [emedicine.com]
Treatment for Hyperpituitarism Treatment can consist of pituitary microsurgery to remove tumor. [healthguidance.org]
Prognosis The prognosis for an individual with either gigantism or acromegaly depends on how far the condition has advanced before successful treatment. Gigantism is generally not life-threatening, and the prognosis is usually good. [m.body-disease.com]
Prognosis The prognosis for hyperfunctioning pituitary tumors in children is very good. Medical therapy or transsphenoidal surgery are preferred methods of treatment. Radian S, Diekmann Y, Gabrovska P, et al. [emedicine.com]
Outlook If hormone replacement therapy is adequate, the prognosis is good. Complications are often related to the underlying disease. [annbyers.yolasite.com]
[…] builder options Subheadings: analysis anatomy and histology blood cerebrospinal fluid chemically induced classification complications congenital diagnosis diagnostic imaging diet therapy drug therapy economics embryology enzymology epidemiology ethnology etiology [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Etiology The hypersecretion of hGH that produces gigantism and acromegaly is typically due to benign, slow-growing glandular tumors, or adenomas, in the anterior pituitary. [m.body-disease.com]
(See Etiology.) Regulation of the development of the mammalian anterior pituitary gland by transcription factors. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Etiology Most cases occur sporadically. Some cases ( 5% ) have a genetic/familial association. [amboss.com]
1965) PubMed search builder options Subheadings: analysis anatomy and histology blood cerebrospinal fluid chemically induced classification complications congenital diagnosis diagnostic imaging diet therapy drug therapy economics embryology enzymology epidemiology [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The epidemiology of prolactinomas. Pituitary. 2005. 8:3-6. [Medline]. Colao A, Loche S, Cappabianca P. Pituitary adenomas in children and adolescents. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapeutic strategies. [emedicine.com]
Among the many highlights of the Fifth Edition are: * An extensively updated chapter on the cellular and molecular biology of the neuron* An expanded chapter on the epidemiology and genetics of neuropsychiatric disorders* An extensively revised and expanded [books.google.com]
(See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) GH acts indirectly, by stimulating the formation of IGF hormones (also called somatomedins). [emedicine.medscape.com]
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 Carney syndrome Isolated familial acromegaly References:  Pathophysiology Pituitary adenomas are well circumscribed, intrasellar tumors with monomorphic, polygonal cells arranged in sheets or cords without any connective [amboss.com]
Pathophysiology Hypothalamic dysfunction clearly may promote tumor growth, but overwhelming evidence indicates intrinsic pituicyte genetic disruption leads to pituitary tumorigenesis. [emedicine.com]
Prevention There is no specific prevention for hyperpituitarism. Early treatment helps to prevent complications. [m.body-disease.com]
Prevention No way is known for preventing hyperpituitarism. Diagnosis Physical examination (to include visual-field exams) and patient history. [azsymptoms.com]
[…] imaging diet therapy drug therapy economics embryology enzymology epidemiology ethnology etiology genetics history immunology metabolism microbiology mortality nursing organization and administration parasitology pathology physiology physiopathology prevention [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Treatment and Prevention Treatment can consist of pituitary microsurgery to remove tumor ; pituitary radiation if surgery fails; gamma knife radiation treatment (a special type of focused radiation); bromocriptine (helps decrease growth hormone in some [diagnose-me.com]
Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. [niddk.nih.gov]
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