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Hypersalivation

Sialorrhea


Presentation

  • Follow-up conversation with the owners 3 weeks after the initial presentation revealed that both the feather picking and the ptyalism had ceased. Animals with sialoceles may be asymptomatic or present with ptyalism, dysphagia, or, rarely, dyspnea.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • We present the case of a 34-year-old Japanese man with delusional disorder, somatic type (DSM-IV). He had chronic neck pain as well as somatic hallucination with hypochondriacal delusion for 4 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 26-year-old man, with a history of perinatal asphyxia, started having medically intractable partial epilepsy at the age of 10 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The presented patients is a unique compound heterozygote for two mutations which do not abolish lipolytic activity in the homozygote state.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Noncompliance
  • Management of this stigmatizing side effect may reduce noncompliance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypersalivation is a frequent, disturbing, and uncomfortable adverse effect of clozapine therapy that frequently leads to noncompliance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypersalivation (sialorrhea or ptyalism) is known as a frequent, disturbing, uncomfortable adverse effect of clozapine therapy that can lead to noncompliance. Until now there is no effective enough treatment for this side effect.[clinicaltrials.gov]
Insect Bite
  • These incidents can occur with metal poisonings such as with mercury and arsenic, from insect bites, reptile venom, and as an effect of ingesting poisoned mushrooms.[doctorshealthpress.com]
Delusion
  • He had chronic neck pain as well as somatic hallucination with hypochondriacal delusion for 4 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient's symptoms included elated mood, grandiose delusions of being a Power Ranger, disorganized behavior, and decreased need for sleep.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Interventions for people with schizophrenia who have too much saliva due to clozapine treatment Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia, a mental health problem that can cause symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions[doi.org]
Distractibility
  • Find distractions to prevent anxiety, and seek advice from your denture dentist if you feel like your dentures are ill-fitting. Photo Credit: Shutterstock Source: Denture Hypersalivation[canadiandenturecentres.com]
Extrapyramidal Symptoms
  • Subsequently, hypersalivation was induced without any extrapyramidal symptoms. It is suggested that hypersalivation was an adverse effect of olanzapine. Possible interaction olanzapine with fluvoxamine might increase the risk of the adverse effect.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Secondary outcomes included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Manic State Assessment Scale, and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). RESULTS: Both amisulpride and moclobemide were very effective in reducing CIS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Within a few days of commencement, the patient developed extrapyramidal symptoms with rigidity, dystonia, and slurring of speech, which prompted discontinuation of the risperidone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abnormal Involuntary Movement
  • The Drooling Severity Scale, Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and sialoscintigraphy will be used as the primary outcome measures; the Clinical Global Impressions Severity, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Abnormal Involuntary Movement[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Furthermore, since salivary gland functionality can be involved in several infectious and autoimmune diseases, we included in the workup hepatitis C virus, HIV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus antibodies and antinucleous serum antibodies (ANA).[academic.oup.com]
Epileptiform Activity
  • Scalp recorded EEG did not demonstrate robust epileptiform activity localized enough to define the epileptogenic zone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Prompt and effective treatment of CIH may assist with treatment tolerability, adherence, and outcomes in patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia. Information on funding and support and author affiliations appears at the end of the article.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both medications were safe and effective as treatment of CIS. Although moclobemide exceeded amisulpride in antisalivation activity, treatment of CIS with amisulpride leads to improvement in psychotic symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Surprisingly, BTX treatment of drug-induced sialorrhea has not yet been described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of schizophrenia depends heavily on neuroleptic drugs. Hypersalivation is a common side effect when people with schizophrenia are treated with neuroleptic drugs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moclobemide (150-300 mg/d) was added to their conventional regular treatment during 14 days. Hypersalivation was assessed at the start of the treatment and at its end point by the 5-point Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The results of research reported herein suggest that in the near future human saliva will be a relevant diagnostic fluid for clinical diagnosis and prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Based on a wide horizon of published data this review is focused on the terminology, methods of assessment, etiology, frequency, symptoms, and therapy of sialorrhea with special emphasis on its dental aspects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This symptom is quite often occurs without a real etiological factors (quite often caused by stressful situations), and is therefore essential that these patients always contact your doctor to determine the true origin of the symptoms.[refluxcentar.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Frequency The actual prevalence rate for patients who drool is unknown. However, 0.5-0.7% of all children born are diagnosed with cerebral palsy.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In a short review we would like to present the pathophysiology and therapeutic options of clozapine-induced hypersalivation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of CIH, specifically, its pathophysiology, measurement, and the evidence for CIH treatment alternatives.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To review underlying pathophysiology and possible treatments for clozapine-induced hypersalivation. DATA SOURCES: Primary literature was accessed through MEDLINE (1966-May 1999).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clozapine-induced sialorrhea: pathophysiology and management strategies . Psychopharmacology, Vol. 185, Issue. 3, p. 265. CrossRef Google Scholar 2006.[pb.rcpsych.org]

Prevention

  • I found some relief from my anxiety when he told me that, barring some underlying cause, producing excessive saliva is a good thing in that it kills plaque and prevents cavities.[jamesfriedmanphotographer.com]
  • Find distractions to prevent anxiety, and seek advice from your denture dentist if you feel like your dentures are ill-fitting. Photo Credit: Shutterstock Source: Denture Hypersalivation[canadiandenturecentres.com]
  • Current Psychiatry . 2011 October;10(10):77-78 Antimuscarinic medications and chewing gum can help prevent excess saliva from disrupting a patient’s life Discuss this article at www.facebook.com/CurrentPsychiatry Hypersalivation is a well-documented side[mdedge.com]
  • The toxin paralyzes the nerves and muscles in the area, preventing the glands from producing saliva. This effect will wear off after a couple of months, so you will likely need to return for repeat injections.[healthline.com]
  • By ANA HOMAYOUN The Checkup Photo Credit iStock Children’s Safety on Wheels On bikes and scooters, “the best way to prevent an injury is to wear a helmet, and children need to follow the rules of the road,” an expert says. By PERRI KLASS, M.D.[nytimes.com]

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