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  • We present a case of a young recreational cocaine user with uncontrolled hypertension who presented to hospital with acute chest pain and was diagnosed with an acute aortic dissection. The patient's last use of powdered cocaine was 3 days prior.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The goal of this review is to present experimental evidence that has led to the conclusion that decreased dopamine receptor function increases ROS activity and vice versa.[doi.org]
  • We present the biologic rationale and scientific evidence that show that the current salt intake levels largely explain the high prevalence of hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypertensive urgencies frequently present with headache (22%), epistaxis (17%), faintness, and psychomotor agitation (10%) and hypertensive emergencies frequently present with chest pain (27%), dyspnea (22%) and neurological deficit (21%).[dx.doi.org]
Renal Artery Stenosis
  • The following recommendations were modified: (1) renal artery stenosis should be primarily managed medically; and (2) renal artery angioplasty and stenting could be considered for patients with renal artery stenosis and complicated, uncontrolled hypertension[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Atherosclerotic disease causing renal artery stenosis is essential to be taken into consideration in the etiopathogenesis of resistant hypertension especially because RVH is a potentially curable disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the remaining 22%, the cause of hypertension, in order of frequency, was renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, pheochromocytoma, and a variety of other conditions. Table 2.[web.archive.org]
  • A systolic bruit heard over the abdomen or in the flanks suggests renal artery stenosis. Radiofemoral delay or diminished pulses in lower versus upper extremities suggests coarctation of the aorta.[web.archive.org]
  • Comparative accuracy of renal duplex sonographic parameters in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis: Paired and unpaired analysis. Am J Roentgenol. 2007; 188 :798–811. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • Signs of hypertensive retinopathy are frequently seen in adults 40 years and older, and are predictive of incident stroke, congestive heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality--independently of traditional risk factors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Similarly, we found no differences in serious adverse events (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08; low-quality evidence) or total cardiovascular events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, hospitalization, or death from congestive heart failure[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There was a reduction in fatal and non fatal cardiovascular events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, hospitalization or death from congestive heart failure) with the lower target (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.98; ARR 1.6% over 3.7 years[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, impaired vision, and kidney disease. Generally, the higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk.[healthcommunities.com]
  • Hypertension is present in 33.5% of adult men and women and a risk factor for myocardial infarction, stroke, renal disease, and congestive heart failure.[doi.org]
Coronary Artery Disease
  • Prevalence and role of methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase 677 C ³ T and 1298 A ³ C polymorphisms in coronary artery disease in Arabs. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2003, 127: 1349-1352. doi: . 15. Alam MA et al.[med-sovet.pro]
  • AIMS: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) may be considered as an important cytokine in maintenance and progression of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised, doubleblind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet, 2003, 362: 782–788. 14.[med-sovet.pro]
  • Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction ("heart attacks") and stroke.[cvphysiology.com]
  • Hypertension and Stress Left unmanaged, stress can lead to emotional, psychological, and even physical problems, including coronary artery disease and high blood pressure.[webmd.com]
Chest Pain
  • The consequences of uncontrolled blood pressure in this range can be severe and include: Stroke Loss of consciousness Memory loss Heart attack Damage to the eyes and kidneys Loss of kidney function Aortic dissection Angina (unstable chest pain) Pulmonary[heart.org]
  • We present a case of a young recreational cocaine user with uncontrolled hypertension who presented to hospital with acute chest pain and was diagnosed with an acute aortic dissection. The patient's last use of powdered cocaine was 3 days prior.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] edema (fluid backup in the lungs) Eclampsia If you get a blood pressure reading of 180 or higher on top or 110 or higher on the bottom, and are having any symptoms of possible organ damage (chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, numbness/weakness[web.archive.org]
  • Hypertensive urgencies frequently present with headache (22%), epistaxis (17%), faintness, and psychomotor agitation (10%) and hypertensive emergencies frequently present with chest pain (27%), dyspnea (22%) and neurological deficit (21%).[oadoi.org]
  • Steinmetz JC (1989) Neonatal hypertension and cardiomegaly associated with a congenital neuroblastoma. Pediatr Pathol 9:577–582 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 101.[doi.org]
Diastolic Hypertension
  • Systolic hypertension is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease than diastolic hypertension, and occurs more commonly in older people.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Similarly, so-called artifactual isolated diastolic hypertension in young individuals is typically associated with additional cardiovascular risk factors and often precedes the development of systolic/diastolic hypertension in later life.[doi.org]
Blurred Vision
  • Without treatment, hypertension can lead to bleeding in the eye, blurred vision, damage to the optic nerve, glaucoma, and vision loss.[vsp.com]
  • PIH can cause headaches, blurred vision, vision loss, abdominal pain and dizziness. It can cause slow growth of the baby, low birth weight and premature delivery.[familydoctor.org]
  • vision Epistaxis Bell palsy Physical Measurement and recording of blood pressure (BP) Best medical care includes yearly measurement of BP in every child older than 3 years, preferably by means of auscultation with a mercury gravity manometer.[web.archive.org]
  • These symptoms include: Headache Dizziness Shortness of breath Blurred vision Feeling of pulsations in the neck or head Nausea SLIDESHOW High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Symptoms, Causes, Treatments See Slideshow Source: iStock What causes high blood[medicinenet.com]
  • High blood pressure brain symptoms: Headache Dizziness Blurred vision Nausea and vomiting High blood pressure and heart symptoms Chest pain Shortness of breath Weakness Nausea and vomiting People often do not seek medical care until they have symptoms[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Hypertensive urgencies frequently present with headache (22%), epistaxis (17%), faintness, and psychomotor agitation (10%) and hypertensive emergencies frequently present with chest pain (27%), dyspnea (22%) and neurological deficit (21%).[oadoi.org]
  • [superficially located in the head and the neck], and protrusion of the eyes occur,… there is concern that a vessel [of the brain] becomes ruptured and uncontrollable bleeding occurs, or 'sakteh' [stroke] occurs … and there is the threat of death …; epistaxis[doi.org]
  • […] possibility of hypertension include the following: Neonates Failure to thrive Seizure Irritability or lethargy Respiratory distress Congestive heart failure Children (Findings in addition to those observed in neonates) Headache Fatigue Blurred vision Epistaxis[web.archive.org]
  • , we observed that the frequency of the Pl A2 allele was higher among stroke versus nonstroke patients (stroke, 46.4%; nonstroke, 22.6%; P 0.01).[oadoi.org]
  • […] risk factor for heart disease and stroke.[cdc.gov]
  • […] findings suggest that higher adherence to the DASH diet is associated with a decreased risk of stroke.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Raised blood pressure is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and ischemic as well as hemorrhagic stroke. Blood pressure levels have been shown to be positively and continuously related to the risk for stroke and coronary heart disease.[who.int]
  • He described in detail the symptoms of hypertension such as headache, heaviness in the head, sluggish movements, general redness and warm to touch feel of the body, prominent, distended and tense veins, fullness of the pulse, distension of the skin, coloured[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypertensive urgencies frequently present with headache (22%), epistaxis (17%), faintness, and psychomotor agitation (10%) and hypertensive emergencies frequently present with chest pain (27%), dyspnea (22%) and neurological deficit (21%).[oadoi.org]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old woman who has diagnosed with Turner syndrome with a karyotype of 46,X,i(X)(q10) visited for hypertension and mild headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A large proportion of participants thought hypertension was principally caused by stress and produced symptoms, particularly headache, dizziness, and sweating.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PIH can cause headaches, blurred vision, vision loss, abdominal pain and dizziness. It can cause slow growth of the baby, low birth weight and premature delivery.[familydoctor.org]
  • […] inhibitors) Insulin resistance (typically found in diabetics patients) Frequent stress and anxiety Oral contraceptives Detection and Diagnosis Many people with hypertension don’t have any symptoms, however, those that do often report feeling flushed, dizzy[mountsinai.org]
  • If this high blood pressure is associated with chest pain, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, or back or abdominal pain, seek medical care immediately.[medicinenet.com]
  • In rare cases, severe high blood pressure can cause problems like these: headaches vision changes dizziness nosebleeds nausea (feeling sick) A person with high blood pressure who has any of these problems should see a doctor right away.[kidshealth.org]
  • BACKGROUND: Hypertension and insomnia are common diseases in the elderly.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Are you an adult who has insomnia and high blood pressure? This study is evaluating three different behavioral interventions for treatment of insomnia and the effects of insomnia on blood pressure.[nhlbi.nih.gov]


  • A workup for secondary hypertension was negative and no other risk factors for aortic dissection were determined.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • Although death and cardiovascular disability do not occur in hypertensive children, intermediate markers of target organ damage, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, thickening of the carotid vessel wall, retinal vascular changes, and even subtle cognitive[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Outcomes related to childhood obesity include hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and psychosocial problems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The peak systolic LS showed significant differences at basal, mid-ventricular, and apical level among normal adults, young NLVH (nonleft ventricular hypertrophy), and young LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Brady TM, Fivush B, Flynn FT, Parekh R (2008) Ability of blood pressure to predict left ventricular hypertrophy in children with primary hypertension. J Pediatr 152:73–78 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar 32.[doi.org]


  • ) occurred in the amlodipine-based treatment group than in the atenolol-based treatment group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In particular, prospective studies in PAD are needed to obtain evidence for benefits from specific blood pressure classes of treatment as well as the optimal blood pressure treatment target level.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • treatment Treatment strategies Lifestyle changes, Smoking cessation, Moderation of alcohol consumption, Sodium restriction, Other dietary changes, Weight reduction, Physical exercise, Pharmacological therapy, Choice of antihypertensive drugs, Monotherapy[web.archive.org]
  • 1.6.16 Before considering step 3 treatment, review medication to ensure step 2 treatment is at optimal or best tolerated doses. [2011] 1.6.17 If treatment with three drugs is required, the combination of ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker[nice.org.uk]
  • Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased with treatment, RR 1.71 [1.45, 2.00].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Abstract The scientific studies that have been conducted so far highlight that renal resistive index (RI) and aortic knob width (AKW) indicate poor prognosis regarding renal and cardiovascular mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Primary Hypertension May Not Affect Prognosis of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis The presence of primary hypertension does not appear to have an effect on the prognosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis.[endocrinologyadvisor.com]
  • […] inhibitors gene expression profiles in leukocytes of primary hypertension (PH), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and obese children PPT Version PDF Version Paloma Manea COMPARISON BETWEEN HS-C REACTIVE PROTEIN AND MICROALBUMINURIA LEVELS FOR THE PROGNOSIS[omicsonline.org]
  • Reductions in albuminuria and in electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy independently improve prognosis in hypertension: The LIFE study. J Hypertens. 2006; 24 :775–81. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 32.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Yihua Bei, Pujiao Yu, Dragos Cretoiu, Sanda Maria Cretoiu and Junjie Xiao, Exosomes-Based Biomarkers for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Diseases, Exosomes in Cardiovascular Diseases, 10.1007/978-981-10-4397-0_5, (71-88), (2017). Michael A.[doi.org]


  • Pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare cause among various etiologies for hypertension in patients with Turner syndrome. Here, we reported a pheochromocytoma as a rare cause of hypertension in Turner syndrome patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our study aimed to evaluate the association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genetic polymorphism and hypertension, and to provide evidence for the etiology of hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] of AT1R PPT Version PDF Version Yuanlin Song ARDS, lung infectious disease PPT Version Denis Hadjiliadis Susceptibility of CF patients to Pseudomonas acquisition PPT Version Speaker PPTs Ekambaram Umapathy An association between vasoactive agents and etiology[omicsonline.org]
  • In the past, textbooks usually stated that an etiology could be determined in less than 5% of patients presenting with newly diagnosed hypertension.[libreriacortinamilano.it]
  • [Etiology and blood pressure patterns in secondary hypertension in children]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2007 Jan-Mar. 111(1):70-81. [Medline]. Kapur G, Ahmed M, Pan C, Mitsnefes M, Chiang M, Mattoo TK.[emedicine.com]


  • KEYWORDS: Blood pressure; Controlled hypertension; Epidemiology; Hypertension; Tunisia [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] and Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA 22 Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, Biometry, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA 23 MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • , Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 22 Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Center for Human Genetics Research, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. 23 Estonian Genome[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Wikipedia Scholarly article on hypertension, classification,signs and symptoms, causes,diagnosis, prevention, treatment, complications, epidemiology, and history.[curlie.org]
  • It included basic research, drug development programs, epidemiologic studies, health surveys of US citizens, clinical research, and large-scale drug trials.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • […] those clinical pathophysiological alterations was hemodynamic evidence of impaired cardiovascular and renal structure and function.[doi.org]
  • The pathophysiology of this complication of hypertension is unclear. Preserving the RV and preventing the development of pulmonary vascular disease may be considered among the targets of optimized therapy for systemic hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thus, new classification of hypertension based on renal mechanisms may provide an important key to understand pathophysiology of hypertensive diseases as well as nature of their renal lesions.[doi.org]
  • This evolution has taken place because of a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertensive diseases, the development of new classes of antihypertensive agents that attack specific pressor mechanisms, and the ability to wed these concepts[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] midwestern.edu Search for more papers by this author First published: 24 October 2018 Cited by: 1 Consensus Statements of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) provide the veterinary community with up‐to‐date information on the pathophysiology[doi.org]


  • Therefore, identification of the means of preventing hypertension in earlier life is an important objective.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Current recommendations for primary prevention of hypertension involve a population-based approach and an intensive targeted strategy focused on individuals at high risk for hypertension.[oadoi.org]

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