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Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a group of disorders characterized overproduction and secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.


Presentation

Hyperthyroidism is characterized by the activation of sympathetic nervous system [3]. The common symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

Older adults usually either have no symptoms, or have only subtle ones such as increased heart rate, easy fatigability and heat intolerance.

Goiter
  • In the patients with goiter, hyperthyroidism and symptoms of exophthalmos, and the patients with goiter, hyperthyroidism without symptoms of exophthalmos, IL-2 and TGF-β expression level were not different (p 0.05).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Toxic multinodular goiter: 60% of the cases of toxic multinodular goiter are caused by defects in the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) receptor gene. In 40% of the cases, the cause is unknown.[symptoma.com]
  • Complete resolution of the fetal goiter was observed at 35 weeks gestation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical features of fetal hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, goiter, growth restriction, advanced bone maturation, cardiomegaly, and fetal death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Loss
  • A 28-year-old woman presented with weight loss and tiredness. Investigations revealed hyperthyroidism. She was commenced on treatment and later became pregnant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 13-year-old male presented with increasing height velocity (17.75 cm/year, 9.55SD), weight loss, and visual impairment. Initial biochemical evaluations revealed secondary hyperthyroidism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Last year, he developed clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism with a fast heartbeat, heat intolerance and weight loss. Blood examinations revealed low levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This leads to a wide range of symptoms including weight loss, increased appetite, increased sweating, intolerance to heat, anxiety and irritability. Hyperthyroidism can be treated by drugs, surgery or radiation.[symptoma.com]
Weakness
  • This disease should be considered in patients presenting with symmetric motor weakness and hypokalemia, whether or not symptoms of hyperthyroidism are elicited during the review of systems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She presented with muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea since one week. The initial diagnosis was TPP. However, biochemistry tests showed hypokalemia with metabolic alkalosis and renal potassium wasting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Large-scale assessment of methodological quality of meta-analyses of hyperthyroidism treatment highlighted methodological strengths and weaknesses. Consideration of scientific quality when formulating conclusions should be made explicit.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It involves acceleration of body functions, and symptoms include increased heart rate, anxiety, weight loss, difficulty sleeping, tremors in the hands, weakness, and sometimes diarrhea.[labtestsonline.org]
Fatigue
  • We report the case of a 33-year-old euthyroid woman who presented to our hospital with palpitation, hand tremor, fatigue, and excessive sweating after HSG.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A new ... read more Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Possibly Explained by Lower Levels of Key Thyroid Hormones Mar. 20, 2018 — A new study reveals that chronic fatigue syndrome, a debilitating condition with unknown causes, can be explained by lower thyroid[sciencedaily.com]
  • Increased energy (hyperactivity) Fatigue Unexplained weight loss Trouble sleeping Inability to tolerate heat Trouble concentrating in school Diarrhea Fast, pounding heartbeat Bulging eyes Irregular periods Shaking Hyperthyroidism can be treated by taking[cincinnatichildrens.org]
  • Therefore, it can be often confused with other conditions that cause fatigue.” However, she says hypothyroidism is easy to test for with a simple screening called a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test.[piedmont.org]
Fever
  • This patient had life-threatening thyrotoxicosis complicated by neutropenic fever and infection, likely caused by a reaction to thionamides. She quickly recovered with broad-spectrum antibiotics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms such as a sore throat, infection or fever should be reported promptly to your physician, and a white blood cell count should be done immediately.[thyroidawareness.com]
  • If you are taking one of these drugs and develop a fever or sore throat, you should stop the drug immediately and have a white blood cell count that day.[thyroid.org]
  • […] can lead to vision loss (Graves' opthalmopathy) Brain damage Neonatal hyperthyroidism (for pregnant women) (6) Red swollen skin (Graves' dermopathy) Thyrotoxic crisis (or Thyroid Storm) - a sudden intensification of hyperthyroid symptoms, leading to fever[huffingtonpost.com]
Polydipsia
  • ) Clinical features Early symptoms : anxiety, palpitations, rapid pulse, fatigue, muscle weakness, weight loss, diarrhea, hyperactive reflexes, increased sweating, heat intolerance, warm skin, excessive perspiration, menstrual changes, hand tremor, polydipsia[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • The most common presenting symptoms are: rapid weight loss , tachycardia (rapid heart rate), vomiting , diarrhea , increased consumption of fluids ( polydipsia ) and food, and increased urine production ( polyuria ).[en.wikipedia.org]
Palpitations
  • A 22-year-old lactating mother presented with symptoms of uneasiness, palpitation, tachycardia and exophthalmos. She had an abdominal lump suggestive of 26 weeks uterine size but her urine pregnancy test was negative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 35-year-old Japanese man was emergently admitted to our hospital with chief complaints of palpitation and dyspnea. He has been treated for Basedow's disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient presented with continuous tachycardia, palpitations, chest tightness, and headache for 4 days, and aggravated for 1 day. Hyperthyroidism. Methimazole. All symptoms were alleviated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the case of a 33-year-old euthyroid woman who presented to our hospital with palpitation, hand tremor, fatigue, and excessive sweating after HSG.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Any time someone experiences strange sensations they run the risk of developing nervousness and anxiety as a result, especially if some of those symptoms,like heart palpitations, are frightening.[calmclinic.com]
Tachycardia
  • Fetal tachycardia was followed by intrauterine death at 30 wk in the second pregnancy and macerated stillbirth at 26 wk in the third pregnancy. Fetal tachycardia was detected at 17 wk in the fourth pregnancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present report, maternal therapy using MMI to resolve symptoms of fetal thyrotoxicosis, including fetal tachycardia and oligohydramnios, was successfully conducted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical features of fetal hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, goiter, growth restriction, advanced bone maturation, cardiomegaly, and fetal death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 22-year-old lactating mother presented with symptoms of uneasiness, palpitation, tachycardia and exophthalmos. She had an abdominal lump suggestive of 26 weeks uterine size but her urine pregnancy test was negative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the case of a young child with CCHS who presented with tachycardia, which was later found to be due to Grave's disease, after many months of investigation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypertension
  • We present a case of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with arterial hypertension in the 25th week of pregnancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Graves' hyperthyroidism commonly causes tachycardia and may result in pulmonary hypertension and high output cardiac failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE REPORT Herein, we present the case of a 38-year-old woman with untreated hypertension and hyperthyroidism. She presented with muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea since one week. The initial diagnosis was TPP.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in patients with hyperthyroidism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] increased risk of BPH with hyperthyroidism, however, failed to remain significant (adjusted HR   1.11, 95% CI   0.94-1.3) after adjusting for covariates of age (adjusted HR   2.72, 95% CI   2.32-3.2), diabetes (adjusted HR   1.4, 95% CI   1.17-1.68), hypertension[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Heart Murmur
  • Other symptoms include hyperactivity, possible aggression, heart murmurs , a gallop rhythm , an unkempt appearance, and large, thick claws . About 70% of afflicted cats also have enlarged thyroid glands ( goiter ).[en.wikipedia.org]
Diplopia
  • […] diarrhea Lower leg swelling Sudden paralysis Shortness of breath with exertion Decreased menstrual flow Impaired fertility Sleep disturbances (including insomnia ) Changes in vision Photophobia, or light sensitivity Eye irritation with excess tears Diplopia[emedicinehealth.com]
  • In severe cases, blurred vision, diplopia, or reduced color perception may develop. 16 Smoking increases the risk of developing Graves orbitopathy (odds ratio 3.7). 17 Pretibial myxedema, a less common finding, develops from fibroblast activation and[aafp.org]
Muscle Weakness
  • She presented with muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea since one week. The initial diagnosis was TPP. However, biochemistry tests showed hypokalemia with metabolic alkalosis and renal potassium wasting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, in the longer term, less desirable symptoms, such as muscle weakness, insomnia and trembling can also result. The pulse will likely increase, along with an inability to tolerate heat and abnormally high sweating.[thyroid-info.com]
  • They may include Being nervous or irritable Mood swings Fatigue or muscle weakness Heat intolerance Trouble sleeping Hand tremors Rapid and irregular heartbeat Frequent bowel movements or diarrhea Weight loss Goiter, which is an enlarged thyroid that[nlm.nih.gov]
  • These include: Increased heart rate Hand tremor Brisk response to tapping with a reflex hammer Excessive sweating Muscle weakness Protruding eyes If your doctor suspects hyperthyroidism, he or she will order blood tests.[drugs.com]
Muscle Cramp
  • cramps Dry skin Goiter (swelling of thyroid gland) Brittle nails Slow heart rate Irregular period Sensitivity to cold Constipation Carpal tunnel syndrome Treatment for hypothyroidism Levothyroxine sodium tablets (aka Synthroid) can be taken once a day[piedmont.org]
Increased Sweating
  • This leads to a wide range of symptoms including weight loss, increased appetite, increased sweating, intolerance to heat, anxiety and irritability. Hyperthyroidism can be treated by drugs, surgery or radiation.[symptoma.com]
  • Feeling too hot Increased sweating Muscle weakness Trembling hands Rapid heartbeat Tiredness/fatigue Weight loss Diarrhea or frequent bowel movements Irritability and anxiety Eye problems, such as irritation or discomfort Menstrual irregularities Infertility[hormone.org]
  • Symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism include: Nervousness and irritability Increased resting heart rate Heat intolerance and increased sweating Tremor Weight loss or alterations in appetite Frequent bowel movements Sudden paralysis Thyroid enlargement[columbiasurgery.org]
Flushing
  • […] symptoms that can occur with this disease: Breast development in men Clammy skin Diarrhea Feeling faint when you raise your hands High blood pressure Itchy or irritated eyes Itchy skin Nausea and vomiting Protruding eyes (exophthalmos) Skin blushing or flushing[mountsinai.org]
  • Tachycardia Hyperactivity Thyromegaly Other signs and symptoms include the following Prematurity Small for gestational age Poor weight gain despite a voracious appetite Irritability Poor sleep Hypertension Proptosis with lid retraction and stare Warm, flushed[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • For 3 days after treatment with RAI, patient should double flush his toilet and wash his hands often. One should also avoid contact with young children and pregnant women during this time, to avoid harmful effects by radioactivity.[flexikon.doccheck.com]
  • My eyes popped out, I became very hot, my skin was flushed and itchy, my blood pressure went up, my heart pounded in my ears, and I fainted on two occasions -- very scary.[massagetoday.com]
  • Hyperthyroidism results in an increase in the body’s metabolic rate, which characterised by: Flushing of the face and hands Smooth, moist and warm skin Fine, soft and thinned scalp hair Distorted and overgrown nails (thyroid acropachy) that may lift off[dermnetnz.org]
Dry Skin
  • skin Gaining weight too quickly Low energy / activity level Abnormal menstrual cycles Never change a medication dose on your own.[cincinnatichildrens.org]
  • skin Goiter (swelling of thyroid gland) Brittle nails Slow heart rate Irregular period Sensitivity to cold Constipation Carpal tunnel syndrome Treatment for hypothyroidism Levothyroxine sodium tablets (aka Synthroid) can be taken once a day as a replacement[piedmont.org]
  • Other symptoms may include a lighter flow during menstrual periods, dry skin and brittle nails. Grave's disease can also affect the muscles that lift the eyelids. When the eyes seem to protrude, this is called exophthalmos .[massagetoday.com]
  • On examination she had bradycardia and dry skin. The thyroid gland was palpable, non-tender mostly diffuse but some nodular feeling at upper pole of left lobe.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]
Pruritus
  • One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] metabolic rate, which characterised by: Flushing of the face and hands Smooth, moist and warm skin Fine, soft and thinned scalp hair Distorted and overgrown nails (thyroid acropachy) that may lift off the nail bed ( onycholysis ) Generalised itching ( pruritus[dermnetnz.org]
  • Urticaria, pruritus. Brisk reflexes. Goitre. Proximal myopathy (muscle weakness wasting). Gynaecomastia. Lid lag (may be present in any cause of hyperthyroidism).[patient.info]
Urticaria
  • […] rate, which characterised by: Flushing of the face and hands Smooth, moist and warm skin Fine, soft and thinned scalp hair Distorted and overgrown nails (thyroid acropachy) that may lift off the nail bed ( onycholysis ) Generalised itching ( pruritus ) Urticaria[dermnetnz.org]
  • Urticaria, pruritus. Brisk reflexes. Goitre. Proximal myopathy (muscle weakness wasting). Gynaecomastia. Lid lag (may be present in any cause of hyperthyroidism).[patient.info]
Amenorrhea
  • […] established. [7] In addition, those with hyperthyroidism may present with a variety of physical symptoms such as palpitations and abnormal heart rhythms (the notable ones being atrial fibrillation ), shortness of breath ( dyspnea ), loss of libido , amenorrhea[en.wikipedia.org]
Polyuria
  • The most common presenting symptoms are: rapid weight loss , tachycardia (rapid heart rate), vomiting , diarrhea , increased consumption of fluids ( polydipsia ) and food, and increased urine production ( polyuria ).[en.wikipedia.org]
Anxiety Disorder
  • She consulted a psychologist who told her that she suffered from an anxiety disorder and recommended psychotherapy, which was not helpful.[mdedge.com]
  • disorder And more There’s hope![holtorfmed.com]
Tremor
  • We describe a 6-month-old boy with a de novo mutation in the TSHR gene who presented with accelerated growth, enlarging head circumference, tremor and thyrotoxicosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the case of a 33-year-old euthyroid woman who presented to our hospital with palpitation, hand tremor, fatigue, and excessive sweating after HSG.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For example, beta-blockers help slow down a rapid heart rate and reduce hand tremors. Updated on: 07/06/18 Hyperthyroidism Symptoms[endocrineweb.com]
Hyperactivity
  • […] or a toxic nodule (when just one nodule is hyperactive).[columbiasurgery.org]
  • Congenital hyperthyroidism can be a cause of failure to thrive, hyperactivity, developmental delay, and craniosynostosis during infancy. Most commonly, the condition occurs in the setting of maternal autoimmune thyroid disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Increased energy (hyperactivity) Fatigue Unexplained weight loss Trouble sleeping Inability to tolerate heat Trouble concentrating in school Diarrhea Fast, pounding heartbeat Bulging eyes Irregular periods Shaking Hyperthyroidism can be treated by taking[cincinnatichildrens.org]
  • The ingestion of radioactive iodine shows how quickly the thyroid absorbs iodine (a primary component of thyroxine), along with which parts of the thyroid appear to be hyperactive.[massagetoday.com]
  • Beta-blockers: Propranolol 2 mg/kg/d divided in three to four doses/day or atenolol 1-2 mg/kg once daily is the quickest method to control cardiovascular and neuromuscular hyperactivity.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Insomnia
  • However, in the longer term, less desirable symptoms, such as muscle weakness, insomnia and trembling can also result. The pulse will likely increase, along with an inability to tolerate heat and abnormally high sweating.[thyroid-info.com]
  • A also developed insomnia, depressed mood, and intrusive ego-dystonic thoughts. These symptoms emerged 10 years after a subtotal thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism (Graves’ disease).[mdedge.com]
  • Hyperthyroid patients typically experience symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia, weight loss, rapid heartbeat, sweating, diarrhea, and eye or vision changes.[holtorfmed.com]
  • […] redness on the front of legs (pretibial myxedema), which occurs with Graves' Disease Thin, delicate skin and irregular fingernail and hair growth Menstrual disturbance (decreased flow) Impaired fertility Mental disturbances Sleep disturbances (including insomnia[columbiasurgery.org]
Agitation
  • After tracheal extubation, the patient exhibited abnormal tachycardia, agitation, sweating, and hyperpyrexia. The clinical manifestation and the following thyroid function test indicate a high index of suspicion for impending thyroid storm.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] excessive ingestion of thyroid hormone ("factitious hyperthyroidism") Includes a wide range of symptoms, such as ophtalmopathy, dermatopathy, fever, marked tachycardia, heart failure, tremor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, restlessness, extreme agitation[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Psychiatric symptoms seen with hyperthyroidism Anxiety Apathy (more often seen in older patients) Cognitive impairment Delirium Depression Emotional lability Fatigue Hypomania or mania Impaired concentration Insomnia Irritability Mood swings Psychomotor agitation[mdedge.com]
  • Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism include restlessness, agitation, anxiety , tremors , weight loss despite an increased appetite , sweating , rapid heart rate, intolerance to heat, and frequent bowel movements.[medicinenet.com]
Excitement
  • When hyperthyroidism is suspected, drugs that excite the sympathetic nerves or promote the release of histamine should not be used during caesarean section.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although a significant reduction in heart excitability, propanolol failed to restore a good sympathovagal balance in hyperthyroidism. Trial registration NCT03393728 "Retrospectively registered".[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This means they may be capable of acting on the thyroid in either direction, exciting hypoactive and depressing hyperactive thyroids. Although not certain, it suggests that these herbs may be used to treat both conditions—a fascinating possibility.[chrysalisnaturalmedicine.com]

Workup

In addition to complete history, examination and base-line investigations, the following specific set of investigations are helpful in establishing the diagnosis of any thyroid disease [4].

  • Serum T3 an T4 levels
  • Serum TSH levels
  • Iodine uptake
  • Thyroid scan
  • Ultrasonography

In case of auto-immune thyroiditis, the most specific auto-antibody test is an ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) test for anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. The titres are significantly increased in case of Grave’s hyperthyroidism, but are very low or absent in case of toxic adenoma or toxic multi-nodular goiter.

Treatment

Hyperthyroidism is managed by providing symptomatic relief and anti-thyroid therapy, which includes anti-thyroid drugs, radio-active iodine-131 or thyroidectomy.

Anti-thyroid drugs

The drugs commonly used are carbimazole, and propylthiouracil. Both of these drugs interfere with the oxidation of iodides and binding of iodine to tyrosine [5] [6]. 

Advantages:

  • No surgery required
  • No use of radioactive iodine

Disadvantages:

  • Treatment is prolonged (6-24 months)
  • Failure rate is 50% and relapses may occur [7]
  • Very dangerous side-effect such as agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and oropharyngeal bacterial infection can occur and may require discontinuation of the drug

Surgery

In toxic and nodular goiter surgery, subtotal or total thyroidectomy cures the disease by reducing the mass of overactive tissue [8]. 

Advantages:

  • Cure is rapid
  • Cure rate is high

Disadvantages:

Radioactive iodine (RAI)

Radioiodine destroys the thyroid cells without surgery. In this treatment, radioactive iodine is given orally which is taken up by the follicles. In the thyroid follicles, beta and gamma rays are emitted from the radioactive iodine which destroys the follicles [10].

Advantages:

  • No surgery
  • No prolonged drug treatment

Disadvantages:

Contraindications:

  • Absolute contraindications are pregnancy and breast feeding.
  • Relative contraindications include young age, multi-nodularity and Grave’s opthalmopathy.

Prognosis

Hyperthyroidism resulting from toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma mostly occurs in adults and remains throughout life. Following treatment, once the person becomes euthyroid, it is generally not recommended to continue the high dose antithyroid drugs. Instead, radioactive iodine ablation is recommended.

Persistently elevated levels of thyroid hormone can cause heart complications such as left ventricular thickening. This increases the risk of sudden death in these patients. Eye problems that occur in Graves' disease usually improve after proper treatment.

Etiology

Hyperthyroidism can result from several different causes that are listed below [1].

  • Graves disease: It has an autoimmune etiology and is characterized by the presence of auto-antibodies that are capable of stimulating the thyroid gland.
  • Toxic multinodular goiter: 60% of the cases of toxic multinodular goiter are caused by defects in the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) receptor gene. In 40% of the cases, the cause is unknown.
  • Toxic adenoma: Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland is caused by a point mutation in the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) receptor gene.
  • Thyroiditis: Different types of thyroiditis have their own etiologies. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has an autoimmune basis whereas De Quervian thyroiditis has a genetic predisposition in specific human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Suppurative thyroiditis is caused by infections. Drugs such as lithium, amiodarone and interferon-alpha can also cause the development of thyroiditis.

Epidemiology

In the United States, the most commonly occurring form of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. It constitutes around 60 to 80% of the total cases. The peak occurrence is in people with ages 20 to 40.

In iodine-deficient areas, the most common type is toxic multi-nodular goiter, comprising up to 15 to 20% of total cases. It typically presents in people older than 50 years of age.

Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

Normally, the secretion of thyroid hormones is under tight regulation by feedback mechanisms.

When the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, the hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) which stimulates the pituitary gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroid stimulating hormone in turn causes the release of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland. Increased levels of T3 and T4 decrease the production of TSH by negative feedback mechanism.

Any pathology involving the pituitary or thyroid gland or in the periphery leading to increased levels of circulating thyroid hormone can result in thyrotoxicosis. Increased levels of thyroid hormone result in a hypermetabolic state due to increased transcription of cellular proteins [2].

Prevention

There are no current guidelines on the prevention of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease cannot be prevented as it is genetically mediated. However, people residing in iodine deficient areas must introduce iodine in their diets to prevent the occurrence of toxic multi-nodular goiter which is most likely to occur in such areas. This might greatly affect the over-all incidence of hyperthyroidism in these areas.

Also, people with a positive family history of hyperthyroidism or those residing in iodine deficient areas should get themselves periodically checked up for early diagnosis and treatment.

Summary

Hyperthyroidism is a term reserved for disorders that result in the overproduction of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis is a term used to describe a state of thyroid hormone excess resulting from any source. The most common cause of thyroid hormone excess is Graves disease. Toxic multinodular goiter is the second most common cause.

Patient Information

Hyperthyroidism refers to the condition in which the levels of thyroid hormone in the body are high. This leads to a wide range of symptoms including weight loss, increased appetite, increased sweating, intolerance to heat, anxiety and irritability. Hyperthyroidism can be treated by drugs, surgery or radiation.

References

Article

  1. Lacka K, Fraczek MM. [Classification and etiology of hyperthyroidism]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego. Mar 2014;36(213):206-211.
  2. Benker G, Breuer N, Muller R, Wehr M. [Pathophysiology of various forms of hyperthyroidism]. Klinische Wochenschrift. Jun 19 1990;68(12):631-634.
  3. Chen JL CH, Tseng YJ, Chu WC. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate: evidence from spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;64(6):611-616.
  4. Bernier MO, Aurengo A, Leenhardt L. [Hyperthyroidism. Etiology, physiopathology, diagnosis, evolution, treatment]. La Revue du praticien. May 15 2001;51(9):1023-1031.
  5. Gupta SK, Mithal A, Godbole MM. Single daily dose of carbimazole in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The National medical journal of India. Sep-Oct 1992;5(5):214-216.
  6. Rubbens P. [Propylthiouracil therapy of hyperthyroidism]. Belgisch tijdschrift voor geneeskunde. Apr 15 1953;9(8):367-375.
  7. Jonas M, Ambroziak U, Bednarczuk T, Nauman J. Predicting a relapse of Graves' hyperthyroidism in adults during the early phase of treatment with anti-thyroid drugs. Endokrynologia Polska. Nov-Dec 2006;57(6):596-604.
  8. Snyder S, Govednik C, Lairmore T, Jiang DS, Song J. Total thyroidectomy as primary definitive treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism. The American surgeon. Dec 2013;79(12):1283-1288.
  9. Boger MS, Perrier ND. Advantages and disadvantages of surgical therapy and optimal extent of thyroidectomy for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The Surgical clinics of North America. Jun 2004;84(3):849-874.
  10. Chakrabarti B. Radio-iodine (NaI131) therapy in hyperthyroidism. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. Nov 2001;99(11):642-645.

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Last updated: 2018-06-22 09:19