Hyperventilation (Heat Tetany)

Hyperventialtion is an abnormally increased pulmonary ventilation, leading to abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood.


Presentation

psychiatrical
Panic Attacks
  • On the basis of the Diagnostic Symptom Questionnaire, a panic attack was defined as the following: 1) four or more symptoms of a panic attack from DSM-IV; 2) at least one of the cognitive symptoms of a panic attack from DSM-IV (e.g. fear of dying or of[scielo.br]
  • Next, how a panic attack causes the brain to behave in a certain way… Part 5: The Brain and Panic Attacks: 'Emotional Hijacking' »[panic-attacks.co.uk]
  • Hyperventilation is normally associated with anxiety or panic attacks, but it can be much more.[empowher.com]
  • Thinking About Breathing – Many people with panic attacks tend to think about their own breathing.[calmclinic.com]
  • You may hyperventilate from an emotional cause such as during a panic attack. Or, it can be due to a medical problem, such as bleeding or infection. Your health care provider will determine the cause of your hyperventilation.[nlm.nih.gov]
Agitation
  • With hyperventilation, CO2 levels drop in the blood resulting in reduced blood flow to the brain and associated weakness, fainting, dizziness, confusion, agitation, and feeling like you can't breathe.[empowher.com]
  • After surgery, or illness, or prolonged social or physical stress Symptoms Acute Attack - agitation, rapid upper chest breathing and heart-rate, chest pains, shortness of breath, nausea, tingling dizziness, clammy hands, dilated pupils, perhaps fainting[healthnavigator.org.nz]
  • This lower level of carbon dioxide reduces blood flow to the brain, which may result in the following nervous system and emotional symptoms: Weakness Fainting Dizziness Confusion Agitation A feeling of being outside yourself Seeing images that aren't[emedicinehealth.com]
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  • musculoskeletal
    Carpopedal Spasm
    • In extreme cases it may cause carpopedal spasms , a flapping and contraction of the hands and feet. [3] [4] Factors that may induce or sustain [2] hyperventilation include: physiological stress , anxiety or panic disorder , high altitude , head injury[en.wikipedia.org]
    • spasm Type 1 Excludes hysterical tetany ( F44.5 ) neonatal tetany ( P71.3 ) parathyroid tetany ( E20.9 ) post-thyroidectomy tetany ( E89.2 ) hyperpnea R06.4 hyperventilation R06.4 - see also Hyperventilation ICD-10-CM Codes Adjacent To R06.4 R06 Abnormalities[icd10data.com]
    Muscle Twitch
    • If you are experiencing these symptoms, you may be chronically hyperventilating : dizziness & light-headedness breathlessness a sense of unreality increased and/or irregular heartbeat numbness, tingling, or cold in the hands and feet muscle twitching[overcomingyouranxiety.net]
    • , twitching and cramps, tension and panicky feelings, depression and anxiety.[healthnavigator.org.nz]
    • twitching Many different factors can cause chest symptoms with hyperventilation syndrome.[emedicinehealth.com]
    Chvostek Sign
    • Chvostek's sign is also due to hypocalcaemia. Flick behind the ear, just in front of the mastoid bone where the facial nerve emerges. The hypersensitive facial nerve makes the muscles of the face twitch.[patient.info]
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  • neurologic
    Dizziness
    • Hyperventilation syndrome is one of the most common causes of dizziness in the general population, accounting for up to 25 percent of dizziness complaints. 1,2,7 Hyperventilation syndrome may present a diagnostic challenge to the chiropractic physician[dynamicchiropractic.com]
    • Caution: known as the great mimic, some h yperventilation syndrome symptoms such as chest pain, dizziness and shortness of breath need checking by your doctor to rule out serious events.[healthnavigator.org.nz]
    • This makes the blood lose more carbon dioxide than usual, which can make them feel weak and dizzy. As they begin to breathe normally again, they should feel better.[sja.org.uk]
    • May cause dizziness and tingling of toes and fingers and chest pain if continued. Also called overbreathing .[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Hyperventilation causes dizziness , lightheadedness, a sense of unsteadiness, and tingling around the mouth and fingertips.[medicinenet.com]
    Paresthesia
    • THE hyperventilation syndrome, as seen in anxious, tense persons, is characterized by paresthesia of the extremities and circumoral area, sensations of lightheadedness and altered consciousness and occasionally carpal spasm.[nejm.org]
    • […] containing a vasoconstrictor congruent with the patient’s functional capacity Signs and symptoms: Frequent ( 20 breaths/min), prolonged sighing inspiration Dyspnea Sometimes so severe that the patient feels like suffocating Light-headedness and dizziness Paresthesia[dentalcare.com]
    • The most commonly noted symptoms of hyperventilation syndrome are an ill-defined lightheadedness associated with perioral and digital paresthesias, tightness in the chest, a lump in the throat, sweating, trembling, palpitations, and possible ringing in[dynamicchiropractic.com]
    • Symptoms such as shortness of breath, "empty-head" feeling, dizziness, paresthesias and tachypnea have been described in the psychiatric and respiratory physiology related to panic disorder.[scielo.br]
    Agitation
    • With hyperventilation, CO2 levels drop in the blood resulting in reduced blood flow to the brain and associated weakness, fainting, dizziness, confusion, agitation, and feeling like you can't breathe.[empowher.com]
    • After surgery, or illness, or prolonged social or physical stress Symptoms Acute Attack - agitation, rapid upper chest breathing and heart-rate, chest pains, shortness of breath, nausea, tingling dizziness, clammy hands, dilated pupils, perhaps fainting[healthnavigator.org.nz]
    • This lower level of carbon dioxide reduces blood flow to the brain, which may result in the following nervous system and emotional symptoms: Weakness Fainting Dizziness Confusion Agitation A feeling of being outside yourself Seeing images that aren't[emedicinehealth.com]
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  • Face, Head & Neck
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  • Jaw & Teeth
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  • Workup

    Laboratory

    Serum
    Hypocapnia
    • […] and complaints not exclusively associated with hypocapnia”.[thorax.bmj.com]
    • Abstract The aim of this review was to consider the effects of induced hypocapnia both on systemic physiology and on the physiology of the intracranial system.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
    • Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing ) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce. [1] [2] [3] This lowers the concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved in the blood leading to hypocapnia[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Low P CO 2 ( hypocapnia ) can give rise to symptoms.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
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  • ECG

    QT, RR, ST Intervals
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  • Treatment

    Prognosis

    Complications

    Hyperventilation
    • , the role of hyperventilation in some drowning incidents[en.wikipedia.org]
    • ] , hyperventilating , hyperventilates , hyperventilate , hyperventilated , hyperventilation , hyperventilations , overbreathing , [D]Hyperventilation (situation) , HYPERVENTILATION , Overbreathing , Hyperventilating , HV - Hyperventilation , Hyperventilation[fpnotebook.com]
    • Hyperventilation and Hyperventilation Syndrome Hyperventilation is caused by anxiety, but once caused, some argue that hyperventilation ends up becoming its own disorder, known as "hyperventilation syndrome."[calmclinic.com]
    • Hyperventilation Syndrome. Patient Comments & Reviews Hyperventilation - Causes What was the cause of your hyperventilation? Post View 3 Comments Hyperventilation - Causes What were the causes of your hyperventilation? Post View 2 Comments[emedicinehealth.com]
    • […] by which hyperventilation was diagnosed.[thorax.bmj.com]
    Alkalosis
    • The symptoms of respiratory alkalosis include: dizziness, tingling in the lips, hands or feet, headache, weakness, fainting and seizures.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • As the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood decreases, respiratory alkalosis , characterized by decreased acidity or increased alkalinity of the blood, ensues.[britannica.com]
    • A transient, respiratory alkalosis commonly results from hyperventilation.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • ., deep sighs), which result in low CO 2 concentration and elevated arterial pH (respiratory alkalosis). Hyperventilation syndrome is common in young women. Predisposing factors include pain, and personal and environmental stress.[dentalcare.com]
    Syncope
    • References [ edit ] See also [ edit ] List of terms of lung size and activity Control of respiration Choking game a game which may involve hyperventilation in order to induce temporary syncope and euphoria Respiratory alkalosis Shallow water blackout[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis then occur, leading to dizziness, faintness, numbness of the fingers and toes, possibly syncope, and psychomotor impairment.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • […] severe that the patient feels like suffocating Light-headedness and dizziness Paresthesia Burning or prickling feeling of the face and extremities Tonic muscle spasm Tetani can occur because with severe respiratory alkalosis Tightness, pain in the chest Syncope[dentalcare.com]
    Hypocapnia
    • […] and complaints not exclusively associated with hypocapnia”.[thorax.bmj.com]
    • Abstract The aim of this review was to consider the effects of induced hypocapnia both on systemic physiology and on the physiology of the intracranial system.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
    • Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing ) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce. [1] [2] [3] This lowers the concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved in the blood leading to hypocapnia[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Low P CO 2 ( hypocapnia ) can give rise to symptoms.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

    Etiology

    Causes

    Alkalosis
    • The symptoms of respiratory alkalosis include: dizziness, tingling in the lips, hands or feet, headache, weakness, fainting and seizures.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • As the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood decreases, respiratory alkalosis , characterized by decreased acidity or increased alkalinity of the blood, ensues.[britannica.com]
    • A transient, respiratory alkalosis commonly results from hyperventilation.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • ., deep sighs), which result in low CO 2 concentration and elevated arterial pH (respiratory alkalosis). Hyperventilation syndrome is common in young women. Predisposing factors include pain, and personal and environmental stress.[dentalcare.com]

    Epidemiology

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    Prevention

    Summary

    Patient Information

    Other symptoms


    Self-assessment

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    References

    1. Blood gas changes and hypophosphatemia in lactate-induced panic - JM Gorman, BS Cohen, MR Liebowitz - Archives of general , 1986 - Am Med Assoc
    2. Calcium blocking drugs for angina pectoris - R Zelis, SF Flaim - Annual Review of Medicine, 1982 - annualreviews.org
    3. Adverse events following immunisation associated with the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign - RM D'Souza, S Campbell-Lloyd, D Isaacs - Communicable , 2000 - health.gov.au
    4. Antecedent psychological factors in the onset of vasovagal syncope - WH Sledge - Psychosomatic Medicine, 1978 - Am Psychosomatic Soc
    5. Fatal encephalitis caused by a bat-borne rabies-related virus - RO ROINE, M HILLROM, M VALLE, M HALTIA - Brain, 1988 - Oxford Univ Press
    6. Gentamicin-induced bilateral vestibular hypofunction - LB Minor - JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical , 1998 - Am Med Assoc
    7. Asthma and panic disorder. - KB Schmaling, J Bell - Archives of family medicine, 1997 - ukpmc.ac.uk
    8. 12-lead ECG in the athlete: physiological versus pathological abnormalities - D Corrado, A Biffi, C Basso, A Pelliccia - British journal of sports , 2009 - bjsportmed.com
    9. Diagnosis of hyperventilation syndrome on the basis of reported complaints - P Grossman, JCG De Swart - Journal of psychosomatic research, 1984 - Elsevier
    10. A clinical taxonomy of dizziness and anxiety in the otoneurological setting - JM Furman, RG Jacob - Journal of anxiety disorders, 2001 - Elsevier
    11. Activation of human nerves by hyperventilation and hypocalcemia: neurologic mechanism of symptoms of irritation in tetany - E KUGELBERG - Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1948 - Am Med Assoc
    12. Cerebral apoplexy (stroke) treated with or without prolonged artificial hyperventilation: 1. Cerebral circulation, clinical course, and cause of death - MS CHRISTENSEN, OB PAULSON, JES OLESEN - Stroke, 1973 - Am Heart Assoc
    13. Excitability changes in human sensory and motor axons during hyperventilation and ischaemia. - I Mogyoros, MC Kiernan, D Burke, H Bostock - Brain, 1997 - Oxford Univ Press
    14. Herbal medicine causing likely strychnine poisoning - TYK Chan - Human & Experimental Toxicology, 2002 - het.sagepub.com
    15. Alkalosis Due to Hyperventilation - TH Sattler, GH Marquardt - Journal of the American , 1951 - Am Med Assoc
    16. How does VTE risk for the patch and vaginal ring compare with oral contraceptives? - TC Elliott, CC Montoya - Journal of Family , 2008 - mospace.umsystem.edu
    17. Hyperventilation syndrome in children and adolescents: long-term follow-up - SP Herman, GB Stickler, AR Lucas - Pediatrics, 1981 - Am Acad Pediatrics
    18. A comparison of four commonly used local analgesics - JK Petersen, H Lück, F Kristensen - International Journal of , 1977 - Elsevier

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