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Hyperventilation

Heat Tetany

Hyperventialtion is an abnormally increased pulmonary ventilation, leading to abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood.


Presentation

  • We present the case of a 10-year-old boy, Evan, where a knock to the head activated memories of past bullying, causing intense distress, activation of the body's stress-regulation systems and recurrent hospital presentations with hyperventilation-induced[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract An outline of the nature and varieties of hyperventilation is presented together with a discussion on the role of artificial hyperventilation in the management of neurosurgical patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report two pediatric patients who presented with prolonged central sleep apnea secondary to behavioral hyperventilation. One patient also had a prolonged corrected QT (QT(C)) interval resulting from hyperventilation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Overview Hyperventilation syndrome is one of the most common causes of dizziness and paresthesias presenting to neurologists, and yet, it is underdiagnosed.[medlink.com]
Carpopedal Spasm
  • In extreme cases it may cause carpopedal spasms , a flapping and contraction of the hands and feet. [3] [4] Factors that may induce or sustain [2] hyperventilation include: physiological stress , anxiety or panic disorder , high altitude , head injury[en.wikipedia.org]
  • spasm Type 1 Excludes hysterical tetany ( F44.5 ) neonatal tetany ( P71.3 ) parathyroid tetany ( E20.9 ) post-thyroidectomy tetany ( E89.2 ) hyperpnea R06.4 hyperventilation R06.4 - see also Hyperventilation ICD-10-CM Codes Adjacent To R06.4 R06 Abnormalities[icd10data.com]
Muscle Twitch
  • If you are experiencing these symptoms, you may be chronically hyperventilating : dizziness & light-headedness breathlessness a sense of unreality increased and/or irregular heartbeat numbness, tingling, or cold in the hands and feet muscle twitching[overcomingyouranxiety.net]
  • , twitching and cramps, tension and panicky feelings, depression and anxiety.[healthnavigator.org.nz]
  • twitching Many different factors can cause chest symptoms with hyperventilation syndrome.[emedicinehealth.com]
Chvostek Sign
  • Chvostek's sign is also due to hypocalcaemia. Flick behind the ear, just in front of the mastoid bone where the facial nerve emerges. The hypersensitive facial nerve makes the muscles of the face twitch.[patient.info]
Leg Cramp
  • Cramps: - How to get rid of cramps : How to get rid of cramps breathing exercise - Leg cramps at night : Two easy solutions (Earthing and reduced breathing exercise).[normalbreathing.com]
Dizziness
  • Hyperventilation syndrome is one of the most common causes of dizziness in the general population, accounting for up to 25 percent of dizziness complaints. 1,2,7 Hyperventilation syndrome may present a diagnostic challenge to the chiropractic physician[dynamicchiropractic.com]
  • This makes the blood lose more carbon dioxide than usual, which can make them feel weak and dizzy. As they begin to breathe normally again, they should feel better.[sja.org.uk]
  • Caution: known as the great mimic, some h yperventilation syndrome symptoms such as chest pain, dizziness and shortness of breath need checking by your doctor to rule out serious events.[healthnavigator.org.nz]
  • Overview Hyperventilation syndrome is one of the most common causes of dizziness and paresthesias presenting to neurologists, and yet, it is underdiagnosed.[medlink.com]
Agitation
  • Clothing made of soft fibers (cotton, silk) may also be helpful, as rougher fabrics such as wool can cause skin irritation, discomfort, overheating and agitation in some people. 4 Try relaxation techniques.[wikihow.com]
  • After surgery, or illness, or prolonged social or physical stress Symptoms Acute Attack - agitation, rapid upper chest breathing and heart-rate, chest pains, shortness of breath, nausea, tingling dizziness, clammy hands, dilated pupils, perhaps fainting[healthnavigator.org.nz]
  • This lower level of carbon dioxide reduces blood flow to the brain, which may result in the following nervous system and emotional symptoms: Weakness Fainting Dizziness Confusion Agitation A feeling of being outside yourself Seeing images that aren't[emedicinehealth.com]
Paresthesia
  • He reported that paresthesias were occasionally asymmetrical and could even be unilateral.[medlink.com]
  • THE hyperventilation syndrome, as seen in anxious, tense persons, is characterized by paresthesia of the extremities and circumoral area, sensations of lightheadedness and altered consciousness and occasionally carpal spasm.[nejm.org]
  • The symptoms of acute hyperventilation are mainly caused by the hypocalcemia . 4 Symptoms Tachypnea Muscle spasms Paresthesia Dizziness Anxiety Spasms of the muscles of the lower arm and hands ( hyperventilation tetany ) can lead to the characteristic[flexikon.doccheck.com]
  • […] containing a vasoconstrictor congruent with the patient’s functional capacity Signs and symptoms: Frequent ( 20 breaths/min), prolonged sighing inspiration Dyspnea Sometimes so severe that the patient feels like suffocating Light-headedness and dizziness Paresthesia[dentalcare.com]
  • The most commonly noted symptoms of hyperventilation syndrome are an ill-defined lightheadedness associated with perioral and digital paresthesias, tightness in the chest, a lump in the throat, sweating, trembling, palpitations, and possible ringing in[dynamicchiropractic.com]
Upbeat Nystagmus
  • Almost nobody gets upbeating nystagmus or torsional nystagmus after hyperventilation (if they are normal), although this can happen rarely in persons with 8th nerve injury (such as acoustic neuromas).[dizziness-and-balance.com]
Panic Attacks
  • On the basis of the Diagnostic Symptom Questionnaire, a panic attack was defined as the following: 1) four or more symptoms of a panic attack from DSM-IV; 2) at least one of the cognitive symptoms of a panic attack from DSM-IV (e.g. fear of dying or of[scielo.br]
  • Next, how a panic attack causes the brain to behave in a certain way… Part 5: The Brain and Panic Attacks: 'Emotional Hijacking' »[panic-attacks.co.uk]
  • The reported rate of panic attacks in PNES ranged from 17% to 83%, with physical symptoms more commonly reported, and affective symptoms less so.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hyperventilation is excessive breathing, normally caused by extreme anxiety, and can happen at the same time as a panic attack. When someone is hyperventilating they breathe unnaturally fast or deep.[sja.org.uk]
Suggestibility
  • While suggestive seizure induction using only placebo-based suggestion provoked a typical event in 13 of 20 patients (65%), the extended protocol was positive in 27 of 34 cases (84%); this improvement was not significant (p 0.11).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Non-state bound learning requires an understanding of trance states, and the role of suggestion, that is: influence. Trance states open a window for suggestion that is much more efficient than at any other time.[breathing.com]
  • The authors suggest that this can be used as a diagnostic criterion for hyperventilation syndrome.[thorax.bmj.com]
  • The early literature suggested that this was a sign of psychogenic (psychiatric) disturbance (Drachman and Hart, 1972), but later workers using better technology to monitor eye movements suggest that nystagmus induced by hyperventilation is a good sign[dizziness-and-balance.com]

Workup

  • Twenty-two of the 29 patients referred for ENS during the study period were eligible for inclusion and underwent a complete workup. HVS was diagnosed in 17 of these patients (77.3%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypocapnia
  • Oxygen uptake during the 30-s WAnT was lower in the hypocapnia than the control trial (1.55 0.52 vs. 1.95 0.44 L min(-1)), while the postexercise peak blood lactate concentration was higher in the hypocapnia than control trial (10.4 1.9 vs. 9.6 1.9 mmol[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypocapnia was developed through voluntary hyperventilation for 20 min prior to Ex1 and during each recovery period. End-tidal CO2 pressure was lower before each exercise in the hypocapnia than control trials.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PHV produces hypocapnia before the stimulus, modifies patients' TcPCO2 values throughout the ECT session and lengthens seizure duration. Voluntary hyperventilation is the most important part of the PHV procedure with respect to achieving hypocapnia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this case, we found capnography to be a very useful aid to monitor respiration in this patient and also to treat the hypocapnia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] and complaints not exclusively associated with hypocapnia”.[thorax.bmj.com]
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
  • Pneumonia : Pneumonia is an infection of the lung by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. COPD, smoking, brain disorders, immune system problems, or sometimes even a surgery can increase the chances of being infected by pneumonia.[thehealthsite.com]

Treatment

  • Both treatment programs were equally effective in reducing symptoms, said Meuret. But CART was the only treatment to physiologically alter panic symptoms by actively reversing hyperventilation in the patients.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only.[drugs.com]
  • Treatment for hyperventilation depends on the cause. Home treatment is usually all that is needed for mild hyperventilation symptoms.[myhealth.alberta.ca]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Prognosis is generally good but will depend on the underlying cause and comorbidity. [ 12 ] Management of associated disorders (such as agoraphobia) will alter the course of the hyperventilation.[patient.info]
  • Hyperventilation Prognosis With appropriate training, a person may use stress -reduction techniques, breathing exercises, and certain medications to reduce the number and severity of the hyperventilation attacks.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Prognosis Patients with chronic HVS experience multiple exacerbations throughout their lives. Children who experience acute HVS often continue this pattern into adulthood.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • In a multivariable logistic regression model including age, gender, WFNS, SAH sum score, pneumonia, neurogenic myocardial injury, etiology, and SIRS, only moderate [odds ratio (OR) 2.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10-5.62] and severe (OR 3.12, 95[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • W. , “The etiology of effort syndrome” , Amer. J. med. Sci. , 1938 , 196 , 840 . Stead , E. A. , and Warren , J. V. , “The role of hyperventilation in the production, diagnosis and treatment of certain anxiety symptoms” , Amer. J. med.[bjp.rcpsych.org]
  • Because of its bizarre manifestations and its basic etiology, it is seen by everyone regardless of the limitation of one's practice. Too many of us have been lulled into a sense of false security by medical school teachings.[aafp.org]
  • Practically all categories in the chapter could be designated 'not otherwise specified', 'unknown etiology' or 'transient'.[icd10data.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology It is quite common but precise prevalence is unknown.[patient.info]
  • […] asthma status was seen to significantly influence the probability of HVS occurrence, with the ORs for HVS in adolescents with lifetime asthma, current episodic asthma, and current active asthma calculated as 11.2, 8.9, and 41.5, respectively. [ 4 ] Epidemiology[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] from Greek: ὑπέρ ("iper") - over and Latin: ventilare - breathe German : Hyperventilation Contents 1 Definition 2 Forms 3 Pathophysiology 4 Symptoms 5 Therapy 1 Definition Hyperventilation is defined as unphysiological deeper and/or faster breathing that[flexikon.doccheck.com]
  • Pathophysiological links between ENS and HVS deserve to be further explored. 2b Laryngoscope, 127:1983-1988, 2017.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the underlying pathophysiology has not been clearly elucidated.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Lewis contended that acute and chronic hyperventilation syndrome occurred frequently and described the common and atypical presentations, pathophysiology, and therapy ( Lewis 1953 ).[medlink.com]

Prevention

  • To help prevent problems, tell your healthcare provider and pharmacist about all the medicines, natural remedies, vitamins, and other supplements that you take.[summitmedicalgroup.com]
  • What to Do to Prevent Hyperventilation Hyperventilation is both caused by and causes anxiety attacks, so if you can stop hyperventilating, you can potentially reduce the severity of your panic attacks and possibly prevent them altogether.[calmclinic.com]
  • Examples of medications for hyperventilation include: alprazolam (Xanax) doxepin (Silenor) paroxetine (Paxil) Preventing hyperventilation You can learn breathing and relaxation techniques to help prevent hyperventilation.[healthline.com]

References

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