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Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood glucose.


Presentation

  • However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The authors discuss other cases reported in the literature of this rare condition and its pathogenic mechanisms, the presented case being the first reported in Romania.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism often present with hypoglycemia when fasting occurs. The presentation, diagnosis, and management of the hepatic glycogen storage diseases and disorders of gluconeogenesis are reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of an 11-month-old male who developed hypoketotic, hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemia after an acute, unintentional methadone exposure. The patient was a previously healthy 11-month-old male who presented in respiratory failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present findings highlight the importance of patient education and physician awareness in dealing with hypoglycemia, in particular the burden of hypoglycemic unawareness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weakness
  • A 50-year-old woman with a large right breast mass was emergently hospitalized for generalized weakness and fatigue. A histological examination of tumor biopsy specimens revealed a phyllodes tumor (PT).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The relationship between A1C and chronic complications of diabetes is curvilinear, A1C is a relatively weak predictor of cardiovascular disease, and minor elevations of A1C above 7% have not been found to be associated with increased mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • , shaky, or lightheaded If you suddenly feel weak, shaky, or lightheaded—or you even faint–you could be experiencing these common signs of hypoglycemia.[healthcentral.com]
  • Symptoms of Hypoglycemia Symptoms of hypoglycemia include the following: Sweating Rapid pulse Shakiness, dizziness, weakness Decreased coordination Difficulty concentrating Blurred vision Headache Trouble performing routine tasks Note: Symptoms can vary[visionaware.org]
  • Weakness or shaking. Moist skin, sweating. Fast heartbeat. Dizziness. Sudden hunger. Confusion. Pale skin. Numbness in mouth or tongue. Irritability, nervousness. Unsteadiness. Nightmares, bad dreams, restless sleep.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
Fatigue
  • Sugar and Adrenal Fatigue For this reason, it is common for those with Stage 3 and beyond Adrenal Fatigue to require sugar replenishment every 2-3 hours. A small snack usually suffices. In fact, as Adrenal Fatigue recovers, this period lengthens.[drlam.com]
  • With each plunge their adrenal fatigue can increase and their hypoglycemia may worsen. To the body, hypoglycemia is a strong stressor, an emergency call to action that can further drain already fatigued adrenals.[adrenalfatigue.org]
  • A 50-year-old woman with a large right breast mass was emergently hospitalized for generalized weakness and fatigue. A histological examination of tumor biopsy specimens revealed a phyllodes tumor (PT).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It comes from being inside an office building without natural ventilation and natural light, resulting in a general feeling of malaise or fatigue. Dr.[thebalance.com]
  • A system‑wide disturbance is created that results in one of the endocrine fatigue syndromes we call hypoglycemia. The standard for diagnosis has been the five-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT).[fibromyalgiatreatment.com]
Hypothermia
  • Born to mothers with gestational diabetes or diabetes mellitus Large for gestational age (LGA) ( 8 pounds 12 ounces or 3969g) Small for gestational age (SGA) ( Premature ( Low birth weight ( Smaller twin when sizes are discordant Polycythemia (hct 70%) Hypothermia[med.stanford.edu]
  • Other risk factors include prolonged exposure to cold temperatures causing hypothermia, sepsis, starvation and infection.[news-medical.net]
  • Symptoms may include: Jitteriness Cyanosis (blue coloring) Apnea (stopping breathing) Hypothermia (low body temperature) Poor body tone Poor feeding Lethargy Seizures The symptoms of hypoglycemia may resemble other conditions or medical problems.[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • The following are the most common symptoms of hypoglycemia: Cyanosis (blue coloring) Jitteriness Apnea (stopping breathing) Hypothermia (low body temperature) Poor body tone Poor feeding Lethargy Seizures Since the symptoms of hypoglycemia may resemble[chw.org]
  • In newborns, hypoglycemia can produce irritability, jitters, myoclonic jerks , cyanosis , respiratory distress, apneic episodes, sweating, hypothermia , somnolence, hypotonia , refusal to feed, and seizures or "spells."[en.wikipedia.org]
Malnutrition
  • Physicians should be aware of the possibility of carnitine deficiency and/or severe hypoglycemia, especially in hemodialysis patients with malnutrition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although ethanol can inhibit gluconeogenesis on its own, the propensity to cause hypoglycemia is more often seen in patients with chronic alcoholism, in whom malnutrition (low glycogen stores) is also present.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Disorders of glucose underproduction Inadequate glucose stores are associated with prematurity, infants who are small for gestational age, malnutrition, and ketotic hypoglycemia.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Fasting hypoglycemia: Certain medicines or herbal supplements such as fenugreek, ginseng, or cinnamon Alcohol Exercise Medical conditions such as liver disease, hypothyroidism, and tumors Eating disorders or malnutrition Stomach surgery or hemodialysis[drugs.com]
Fever
  • Because hypoglycemia in and of itself is not a disease but an indication of another problem, similar to when you have a fever, it's extremely important that you and your doctor figure out the cause of your low blood sugar, especially if you're not diabetic[verywell.com]
  • Physical signs and symptoms of HHNS include: Severe hyperglycemia (greater than 600 mg/dL) Dry, parched mouth Extreme thirst (which may gradually disappear) Warm, dry skin that does not sweat High fever (greater than 101 degrees F) Sleepiness or confusion[visionaware.org]
  • Like fever, hypoglycemia isn't a disease itself — it's an indicator of a health problem.[mayoclinic.org]
Nausea
  • A 66-year-old woman presented to an urgent care clinic for 2 to 3 weeks of general malaise, nausea/vomiting, night sweats, and dyspnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Few hours later, she developed a strong food craving, nausea, abdominal pain, and a headache. The lowest recorded serum glucose was 44 mg/dl (2.4 mmol/l) 14 h post-ingestion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] with type 1 diabetes—whether it’s been diagnosed or not—may experience one or more of the following: Sweating and shaking Blurry vision Poor coordination Dizziness or feeling lightheaded Difficulty concentrating Feeling anxious or irritable Hunger or nausea[jdrf.org]
  • […] anxious feeling behavior change similar to being drunk blurred vision cold sweats confusion cool pale skin difficulty in concentrating drowsiness excessive hunger fast heartbeat headache nausea nervousness nightmares restless sleep shakiness slurred speech[beyondtype1.org]
  • Here are common symptoms people experiencing low blood sugar feel or may exhibit: Hunger or nausea Shakiness and weakness Nervousness and anxiety Sweating or clammy hands, face, and forehead Dizziness or lightheadedness Headache and/or stomach ache Sleepiness[thebalance.com]
Vomiting
  • A 66-year-old woman presented to an urgent care clinic for 2 to 3 weeks of general malaise, nausea/vomiting, night sweats, and dyspnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Children may vomit. Causes/Pathophysiology : Currently idiopathic.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
  • Vomiting (vomiting more than 4-5 times in a 24 hour period). Diarrhea (4-6 episodes in a 24-hour period), unrelieved with taking anti-diarrhea medication and diet modification. Severe constipation, unrelieved by laxatives, lasting 2 to 3 days.[chemocare.com]
  • Inaccurate blood-glucose readings A missed meal A delayed meal Too little food eaten, as compared to the amount of insulin taken More exercise than usual Diarrhea or vomiting Injury, illness, infection, or emotional stress Other medical problems sometimes[chop.edu]
  • Dizziness may also accompany these heart-related symptoms. iStock You feel hungry or nauseated Hypoglycemia can trigger a feeling of extreme hunger, nausea, and even vomiting.[healthcentral.com]
Palpitations
  • Some examples of such symptoms include: Tremors Sweating Palpitations Anxiety and feeling of dread Restlessness Dizziness The brain is particularly vulnerable during a hypoglycemic event as it has very limited reserves of glucose and depends almost entirely[news-medical.net]
  • Hypoglycemia may cause: Sweating Nervousness Lightheadedness Heart palpitations Hunger Headache Tingling feeling around the mouth As hypoglycemia worsens, it may cause: Fatigue Weakness Inappropriate behavior or severe confusion Poor control of movements[uvahealth.com]
  • Hypoglycemia Symptoms Although not specific to hypoglycemia alone, here are some possible signs and symptoms: Sweating Trembling or shakiness Palpitations Anxiety and confusion Hunger Headaches Weakness Irritability In people with diabetes, symptoms can[hospitals.jefferson.edu]
  • You may also notice you are having heart palpitations—irregular changes in your heart rhythm.[healthcentral.com]
  • ., anxiety, palpitations, tremor) low blood glucose value (typically relief of symptoms with administration of glucose In particular, it is important not to make this diagnosis based solely on a low blood glucose value.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Tachycardia
  • The primary hormone that produces tachycardia and pale, cool and clammy skin in the shock patient is epinephrine, which is also released in the hypoglycemic patient producing similar signs.[ems1.com]
  • Tachycardia, the medical name for an especially fast heartbeat, has also been reported. Cold sweats are another reported symptom.[lifeseasons.com]
  • Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction to GlucaGen may include rash, difficulty breathing, or low blood pressure (hypotension) The most common side effects of GlucaGen include: nausea vomiting temporary fast heartbeat or pounding in your chest (tachycardia[glucagenhypokit.com]
  • Definition of hypoglycemia Symptoms Gen: Irritability, anxiety, hunger, fatigue, Neuro: HA, blurred vision, tremors, weakness, confusion, ataxia, stupor, seizures, coma GI: abdominal pain, Heme/CV: pallor, cyanosis, diaphoresis, tachycardia, Resp: tachypnea[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
  • Shakiness, anxiety , nervousness Palpitations , tachycardia Sweating , feeling of warmth (sympathetic muscarinic rather than adrenergic) Pallor , coldness, clamminess Dilated pupils (mydriasis) Hunger , borborygmus Nausea , vomiting , abdominal discomfort[en.wikipedia.org]
Hypotension
  • In AN various cardiac complications may occur: hypotension, bradycardia, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, reduction of left ventricular mass and impairment of its function.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction to GlucaGen may include rash, difficulty breathing, or low blood pressure (hypotension) The most common side effects of GlucaGen include: nausea vomiting temporary fast heartbeat or pounding in your chest (tachycardia[glucagenhypokit.com]
Hypertension
  • Hyperinsulinemia can also result from in utero or perinatal stress (eg, maternal hypertension, prematurity, small for gestational age, hypoxia, Caesarian delivery). [ 5 ] These infants have no genetic mutations.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Blurred Vision
  • Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar include: Sudden, extreme hunger Headache Blurred vision Trembling Weakness/tiredness Cold sweat Fast heartbeat Anxiety/nervousness Irritability What to do if you have low blood sugar: Check your blood sugar to confirm[onetouch.com]
  • You have blurred vision or vision changes. You feel very tired and weak. You are sweating more than usual for you. You have a fast heartbeat. You feel dizzy, lightheaded, and shaky. You have questions about your condition or care.[drugs.com]
  • If early symptoms aren't recognized and treated quickly, blood sugar levels may continue to fall, resulting in drowsiness weakness blurred vision slurred speech confusion clumsiness personality change or strange behavior such as belligerence or silliness[health.harvard.edu]
  • More severe hypoglycemia—for example, blood glucose concentrations less than 45 mg per 100 ml (2.5 mmol/l)—causes blurred vision, impaired thinking and consciousness , confusion, seizures, and coma .[britannica.com]
  • […] anxious feeling behavior change similar to being drunk blurred vision cold sweats confusion cool pale skin difficulty in concentrating drowsiness excessive hunger fast heartbeat headache nausea nervousness nightmares restless sleep shakiness slurred speech[beyondtype1.org]
Muscle Twitch
  • Symptoms of muscle twitching, irritability, and/or increased urination. Poor appetite that does not improve. If you notice excessive sleepiness, confusion.[chemocare.com]
Panic Attacks
  • The more intense bouts are labeled panic attacks. Feeling faint is common and actual syncope may occur. Nocturnal attacks are often preceded by nightmares and cause severe sleep disturbance resulting in daytime somnolence.[fibromyalgiatreatment.com]
  • […] cause symptoms that are associated with reactive hypoglycemia: heart palpitations or fibrillation dizziness light-headedness sweating headaches nervousness irritability shaking and tremors flushing craving for sweets intense hunger nausea, vomiting panic[ketogenic-diet-resource.com]
Confusion
  • If the blood glucose level remains too low, the brain will get insufficient fuel, resulting in confusion, seizures, or loss of consciousness.[merckmanuals.com]
  • A "hypoglycemic reaction," also called an insulin reaction, insulin shock, or low blood sugar reaction, occurs when blood glucose drops to a point where the individual becomes confused and disoriented.[nfb.org]
  • Confusion. Pale skin. Numbness in mouth or tongue. Irritability, nervousness. Unsteadiness. Nightmares, bad dreams, restless sleep. You might pass out if your hypoglycemia is not treated. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • If you have been diagnosed with diabetes and are experiencing hypoglycemia, our team realizes that controlling diabetes can be very difficult, confusing and at times even overwhelming.[hospitals.jefferson.edu]
  • Signs of hypoglycemia include: Hunger Shakiness Dizziness Confusion Difficulty speaking Feeling anxious or weak In people with diabetes, hypoglycemia can be a side effect to medications used to manage diabetes.[wexnermedical.osu.edu]
Seizure
  • Here, a 12-year-old boy is presented with diagnosis of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia who had recurrent attacks of hypoglycemia and seizures from infancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a 61-year-old woman with severe hypoglycemia that induced seizures. On the general check-up, a massive tumor occupying the lower part of left hemi-thorax was discovered.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Of all hypoglycemic episodes reported, none involved seizures or unconsciousness and thus did not meet the current ISPAD definition of severe hypoglycemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A previously healthy 7-year-old boy with no history of clinical immunodeficiency presented with profound hypoglycemia and seizures. He was found to have secondary adrenal insufficiency and was started on glucocorticoid replacement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, not all are aware that these symptoms can rapidly progress to seizures, coma and even death if hypoglycemia is severe.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
Irritability
  • An infant presented with short history of jaundice and irritability, examination showed soft hepatomegaly.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] abnormal behavior lightheadedness unsteady movement inability to concentrate personality changes headache restlessness depressed mood tingling in the hands, feet, lips, or tongue irritability abnormal behavior lightheadedness unsteady movement inability[glucagenhypokit.com]
  • Irritability, nervousness. Unsteadiness. Nightmares, bad dreams, restless sleep. You might pass out if your hypoglycemia is not treated. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • You may feel suddenly overwhelmed, frustrated, angry, anxious, or irritated, or in some cases, irrational.[healthcentral.com]
  • However, people with type 1 diabetes—whether it’s been diagnosed or not—may experience one or more of the following: Sweating and shaking Blurry vision Poor coordination Dizziness or feeling lightheaded Difficulty concentrating Feeling anxious or irritable[jdrf.org]
Headache
  • We have found that some patients who are viewed as receiving sufficient doses of glucocorticoids occasionally exhibit morning headache or morning discomfort, which may be caused by unrecognized nocturnal hypoglycemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Why Hypoglycemia Causes Headaches Low blood glucose levels often cause headaches because of delayed, irregular, and unhealthy meals. These types of headaches can be accompanied by nausea, blurred vision, irritability, confusion, and fatigue.[vanquishheadacherelief.com]
  • Few hours later, she developed a strong food craving, nausea, abdominal pain, and a headache. The lowest recorded serum glucose was 44 mg/dl (2.4 mmol/l) 14 h post-ingestion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] restlessness depressed mood tingling in the hands, feet, lips, or tongue irritability abnormal behavior lightheadedness unsteady movement inability to concentrate personality changes headache restlessness depressed mood tingling in the hands, feet, lips[glucagenhypokit.com]
  • Severe slump symptoms include a profound and intense desire to sleep, muscle fatigue, sweating, the shakes, headaches, changes in vision, or any combination of these symptoms.[thebalance.com]
Dizziness
  • Extreme fatigue, especially when the symptoms of shakiness, dizziness, or sweating are present, could be a warning sign of reactive hypoglycemia.[thebalance.com]
  • Dizziness. Sudden hunger. Confusion. Pale skin. Numbness in mouth or tongue. Irritability, nervousness. Unsteadiness. Nightmares, bad dreams, restless sleep. You might pass out if your hypoglycemia is not treated.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Signs of hypoglycemia include: Hunger Shakiness Dizziness Confusion Difficulty speaking Feeling anxious or weak In people with diabetes, hypoglycemia can be a side effect to medications used to manage diabetes.[wexnermedical.osu.edu]
  • Signs include Hunger Shakiness Dizziness Confusion Difficulty speaking Feeling anxious or weak In people with diabetes, hypoglycemia is often a side effect of diabetes medicines . Eating or drinking something with carbohydrates can help.[medlineplus.gov]
  • However, people with type 1 diabetes—whether it’s been diagnosed or not—may experience one or more of the following: Sweating and shaking Blurry vision Poor coordination Dizziness or feeling lightheaded Difficulty concentrating Feeling anxious or irritable[jdrf.org]

Workup

  • This case highlights the importance of an appropriate workup that can lead to avoidance of unnecessary testing in such patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Slowing
  • While dietary restriction alone did not result in sufficient glucose control in this patient with autoimmune hypoglycemia, treatment with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch led to stable euglycemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We evaluated the efficacy of uncooked cornstarch, a low-glycemic index carbohydrate characterized by slow intestinal degradation and absorption, in addition to a high-fiber diet, for the treatment of PBH.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Slow-Cooker Garlic Mashed Potatoes This simple slow-cooker mashed potatoes recipe skips tedious peeling and boiling and helps save precious stovetop space by letting the slow cooker do the work.[diabeticlivingonline.com]
  • Slow Oxidizers. Let us address slow oxidizer hypoglycemia first. The adrenal hormones, cortisone and cortisol , raise serum glucose levels by converting amino acids and fats to glucose.[drlwilson.com]
  • Moreover, the prescription anti-diabetic drug acarbose also inhibits the alpha-glucosidase enzyme and slows the absorption of glucose.[lifeextension.com]
Glucose Decreased
  • Concepts Finding ( T033 ) SnomedCT 44621000009101 English BLOOD SUGAR DECREASED , Glucose blood decreased , Blood sugar decreased , Decreased blood sugar , Sugar blood decreased , blood decreasing sugar , blood glucose decreased , Blood glucose decreased[fpnotebook.com]
  • In a 24-week continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) substudy, postprandial glucose decreased (P 0.009) and CGM demonstrated up to 3 h more time in the target range of 3.9-10.0 mmol/L with sotagliflozin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Glucagon Increased
  • Insulin levels were not different among sessions, whereas glucagon increased with MDG administration (P 0.001).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Glucagon increases the amount of glucose in the blood by breaking down stored glucose ( starch , called glycogen) and releasing it from the liver into the bloodstream.[emedicinehealth.com]

Treatment

  • The rise in plasma glucose following treatment was 0.85 0.66 mmol/L in 15 min. Eighteen episodes (38%) were resolved ( 4.0 mmol/L) 15-min post-treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • While dietary restriction alone did not result in sufficient glucose control in this patient with autoimmune hypoglycemia, treatment with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch led to stable euglycemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Observational Registry of Basal Insulin Treatment (ORBIT) study evaluated the safety of basal insulin (BI) in real-world settings in China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There was no significant difference in body mass index between both treatment regimens. Similar results were obtained after propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting analyses in the entire cohort.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The nutritional treatment of PBH includes a high-fiber diet and the restriction of soluble and high-glycemic index carbohydrates; however, these measures are not always enough to prevent hypoglycemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Although hyperinsulinism is the predominant inherited cause of hypoglycemia in the newborn period, inborn errors of metabolism are the primary etiologies after 1 month of age.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Extensive studies to understand the mechanisms underlying HAAF have revealed multiple potential etiologies, suggesting various approaches to prevent the development of HAAF.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • TC should be considered as a potential AN complication, but it may be triggered by hypoglycemia of any etiology. Longitudinal strain assessment is a convenient and accurate mode of LV function monitoring in TC patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Six patients with central hypoadrenalism of various etiologies were included in this study. All patients exhibited occasional morning headache or discomfort.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Isolated early-onset ACTH deficiency is rare, and C-terminal region NFKB2 mutations should be considered as an etiology even in the absence of a clinical history of CVID.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Few studies have examined the epidemiology of hypoglycemia in a community-based population. We included 1,206 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants with diagnosed diabetes (baseline: 1996-1998).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Data from various epidemiological studies are shown in Tables 1 and 2 . Epidemiological data from interventional trials The U.K.[care.diabetesjournals.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Causes/Pathophysiology : Currently idiopathic.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
  • Physiology and pathophysiology To understand the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, one must comprehend some basic normal physiology and pathophysiology. The primary energy fuel for cells is glucose.[ems1.com]
  • Thursday October 06, 2016 Many patients with diabetes often do not completely grasp the consequences of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia on vascular health, and health care providers should not assume that a patient has been well educated on the pathophysiology[contemporaryclinic.pharmacytimes.com]
  • Hypoglycemia: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment . New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511325-X . OCLC 36188385 . "UpToDate Inc" . a b Koh TH, Eyre JA, Aynsley-Green A (1988).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Reviews/Commentaries/ADA Statements Pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities Pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion The importance of strict[care.diabetesjournals.org]

Prevention

  • Standardizing point-of-care (POC) testing, nursing protocols, meal delivery, and formulary restriction are useful tools to prevent hypoglycemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Achieving optimal glucose control is necessary to prevent microvascular complications. Hypoglycemia can cause mild disturbances to daily life, but in severe cases can be fatal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • MDG may be more effective than insulin reduction for preventing exercise-induced hypoglycemia and may result in less postintervention hyperglycemia than ingestion of carbohydrate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this PhD thesis, we hypothesized that low-dose glucagon may complement existing insulin therapy in improving glucose control by treating and preventing mild hypoglycemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this review, we present an overview of the literature focused on pharmacological approaches that may prevent the development of HAAF.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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Last updated: 2014-05-06 22:04