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Hypokalemia

Hypokalemias

Hypokalemia is defined as a serum potassium concentration <3.5 mmol/L.


Presentation

  • This case report describes a pediatric patient who presents with chest pain that was attributed to hypokalemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Carcinoid tumor often present as solitary pulmonary nodule and excision biopsy can be curative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] may indicate an aggressive tumour genesis process even at presentation and require urgent treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence of hypokalemia presents in cough mixture abusers. Cough mixture abuse might be one of the secondary causes of hypokalemia paralysis in young patients presenting to emergency departments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Case presentation We report a case of a 4-year-old girl presenting carpopedal spasm and rhabdomyolysis due to severe hypokalemia associated to hypophosphatemia and hypovolemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weakness
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A middle-aged woman presented with episodic weakness of the bilateral thumbs lasting for 2 years. Hypokalemia and a left adrenal mass were subsequently found.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He presented with insidious-onset weakness and numbness in lower limbs for 7 years and recent deterioration of symptoms. Proximal weakness improved with potassium supplement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: A 25-year-old female patient presenting after a fall with muscle weakness in both legs was followed clinically and radiographically.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 62-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with weakness and hypokalemia. The patient was initially misdiagnosed with furosemide toxicity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Two middle-aged Chinese females were admitted to our emergency department for muscular weakness and limb pain, and both have the history of early onset hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • We ask about general symptoms (anxious mood, depressed mood, fatigue, pain, and stress) regardless of condition. Last updated: January 31, 2019[patientslikeme.com]
  • We ask about general symptoms (anxious mood, depressed mood, fatigue, pain, and stress) regardless of condition. Last updated: May 13, 2019[patientslikeme.com]
  • Even though general muscular weakness and fatigue are quite normal during pregnancy, you need to be extra careful about your health.[momjunction.com]
  • Patients with hypertension who frequently complain of unrefreshed sleep, daytime sleepiness, impaired concentration, fatigue, and lethargy commonly suffer from hypokalemia.[empr.com]
  • When to call your healthcare provider Call your provider right away or go to the emergency room if you have any of the following: Vomiting Fatigue Diarrhea Rapid, irregular heartbeat Shortness of breath Chest pain Muscle cramps, spasms, or twitching Weakness[fairview.org]
Respiratory Distress
  • Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, severe muscle weakness, paralysis, respiratory distress, and respiratory arrest are observed.[dovepress.com]
  • Muscle Damage Muscle Weakness or spasms Paralysis [2] Nausea and vomiting Polyuria, nocturia or polydipsia Altered mental status Signs of Ileus Hypotension Cardia arrest Bradycardia or Tachycardia Premature atrial or ventricular beats Hypoventilation/Respiratory[physio-pedia.com]
  • Clinical features  Signs of ileus  Hypotension  Ventricular arrhythmias  Cardiac arrest  Bradycardia or tachycardia  Premature atrial or ventricular beats • Hypoventilation, respiratory distress • Respiratory failure • Lethargy or other mental status[slideshare.net]
Constipation
  • Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, dizziness, abdominal pains and constipation. Patients can also present with convulsions due to severe metabolic alkalosis or hypomagnesemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • According to the Linus Pauling Institute, intestinal paralysis is manifested as abdominal pain and other symptoms such as constipation and bloating. Tests To determine if a person has hypokalemia, several blood tests are run.[livestrong.com]
  • […] sweating Symptoms Of Hypokalemia If there is a slight depreciation in the level of potassium, then it may not lead to any significant symptom but if there are symptoms then they include the following: Dysrhythmias, especially in people with heart problems Constipation[epainassist.com]
  • When symptoms do occur, they may include: Fatigue Muscle weakness Constipation Difficulty breathing Tingling or numbness Irregular heartbeat Fainting You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.[health.cvs.com]
  • Proximal muscle weakness is observed most commonly in lower extremities; cranial muscles are normal, but constipation and distention are prominent. Severe hypokalemia develops when serum K falls below 2.5 mEq/L.[dovepress.com]
Bulimia
  • Although Gitelman syndrome (n 33), Bartter syndrome (n 10), and distal renal tubular acidosis (n 12) were the predominant renal tubular disorders, 44 patients (44%) were diagnosed with anorexia/bulimia nervosa (n 21), surreptitious use of laxatives (n[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some Of The Causes For Hypokalemia Are: Excessive use of antibiotics Diarrhea Excessive use of laxatives Chronic kidney disease Use of diuretics Bulimia Hypomagnesemia Excessive sweating Symptoms Of Hypokalemia If there is a slight depreciation in the[epainassist.com]
  • People with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia , patients with AIDS , alcoholics, and those who have had bariatric surgery have a higher incidence of hypokalemia than others.[emedicinehealth.com]
Abdominal Distension
  • Failures to thrive, chronic diarrhea, vomiting abdominal distension are usual symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients presented with symptoms typical of bowel obstruction including abdominal distension, nausea and vomiting. The majority had diarrhea, but constipation was described in a subset of patients.[karger.com]
Tachycardia
  • A 38-year-old obese woman presented with recurrent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia secondary to persistent hypokalemia necessitating more than 40 DC shocks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinically, the acute symptoms may resemble a herniated vertebral disc, but hypokalemia per se is life-threatening by causing heart arrest through ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] smaller preceding T waves becomes apparent on the ECG. 1,2 A pseudo-prolonged QT interval may be seen, which is actually the QU interval with an absent T wave. 1 Severe hypokalemia can also cause a variety of tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia[doi.org]
  • […] signs of the following: Abnormal heart rhythyms Constipation Fatigue Muscle Damage Muscle Weakness or spasms Paralysis [2] Nausea and vomiting Polyuria, nocturia or polydipsia Altered mental status Signs of Ileus Hypotension Cardia arrest Bradycardia or Tachycardia[physio-pedia.com]
  • […] atrial fibrillation ventricular tachycardia Torsades des pointes Lab Investigations Lab investigations should include: CBC (to examine for leukemia or other leukocytic conditions that could cause spurious results electrolytes kidney function (BUN, creatinine[sharinginhealth.ca]
Palpitations
  • Of Hypokalemia If there is a slight depreciation in the level of potassium, then it may not lead to any significant symptom but if there are symptoms then they include the following: Dysrhythmias, especially in people with heart problems Constipation Palpitations[epainassist.com]
  • If you have muscle cramps , weakness, palpitations, or feel faint and you are taking a diuretic (water pill), contact your healthcare professional or go to an urgent care facility or hospital emergency department immediately.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • […] endogenous insulin secretion from the pancreas in normal conditions β2-adrenergic agonists alkalosis hyposmolality diarrhea Presentation muscle and cardiac dysfunction muscular symptoms abdominal cramping muscle weakness and cramping cardiac symptoms palpitations[step2.medbullets.com]
Hypotension
  • We conclude that rapid correction of respiratory acidosis, especially in the setting of hypotension, can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] individual with Hypokalemia may exhibit signs of the following: Abnormal heart rhythyms Constipation Fatigue Muscle Damage Muscle Weakness or spasms Paralysis [2] Nausea and vomiting Polyuria, nocturia or polydipsia Altered mental status Signs of Ileus Hypotension[physio-pedia.com]
  • Clinical signs include muscle weakness, cramping, fasciculations, paralytic ileus, and when hypokalemia is severe, hypoventilation, and hypotension.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Weak pulses (irregular and thread) Orthostatic Hypotension Depression ST, flat or inverted T wave and prominent u-wave Shallow respirations with diminished breath sounds….due to weakness of accessory muscle movement to breath) Confusion, weak Flaccid[registerednursern.com]
Irregular Heart Rhythm
  • This is most common in people who take digitalis medications (digoxin) or have irregular heart rhythm conditions such as: fibrillation, atrial or ventricular tachycardia (heartbeat too fast) bradycardia (heartbeat too slow) premature heartbeats Other[healthline.com]
  • ECG or a heart tracing is done to detect electrical changes in the heart and certain types of irregular heart rhythms that may be caused by low potassium.[emedicinehealth.com]
Muscle Weakness
  • METHODS: A 25-year-old female patient presenting after a fall with muscle weakness in both legs was followed clinically and radiographically.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, dizziness, abdominal pains and constipation. Patients can also present with convulsions due to severe metabolic alkalosis or hypomagnesemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, severe muscle weakness, paralysis, respiratory distress, and respiratory arrest are observed.[dovepress.com]
  • Eleven patients had a history of recurring muscle weakness. All patients had quadraparesis (muscle weakness in all four limbs); in 10 patients the weakness was severe.[acutecaretesting.org]
Muscle Twitch
  • twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis; nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism Hypokalemia; lower than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood Lower than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood Applies[icd9data.com]
  • Muscular malfunction may result in paralysis of the bowel, low blood pressure, muscle twitches and mineral deficiencies (tetany). Severe hypokalemia may also lead to disruption of skeletal muscle cells, particularly during exercise.[rarediseases.org]
Chvostek Sign
  • sign ipsilateral facial muscle contraction caused by tapping the facial nerve Trousseau sign carpopedal spasms by inflating the sphygmomanometer above systolic blood pressure Studies QTc prolongation Treatment address underlying cause asymptomatic or[step2.medbullets.com]
Polyuria
  • Genitourinary Polyuria or sexual dysfunction. [2] Medical Management (current best evidence) Severe hypokalmeia levels that cause ECG changes such as T-wave flattening or prominent U waves require hospital admission.[physio-pedia.com]
  • Predisposing factors General Polyuria increases urinary loss of potassium. Anorexia reduces dietary intake. Pathophysiology Vast majority (95%) of body potassium is present intracellularly.[vetstream.com]
  • Persistent hypokalemia can impair renal concentrating ability, causing polyuria with secondary polydipsia.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Polyuria: While the kidneys are generally able to reduce potassium concentrations to 5 to 10 mEq/L, high urine output may still lead to excessive potassium losses.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Nocturia
  • […] between gender and race. [3] Characteristics/Clinical An individual with Hypokalemia may exhibit signs of the following: Abnormal heart rhythyms Constipation Fatigue Muscle Damage Muscle Weakness or spasms Paralysis [2] Nausea and vomiting Polyuria, nocturia[physio-pedia.com]
  • GS most commonly manifests with muscle weakness, salt craving, thirst, nocturia, paresthesia (especially in the face), tetany, and abdominal pain ( 3 ). Blood pressure is typically lower than that in the general population.[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
  • Clinical signs include salt craving, cramps, muscle weakness and aches, fatigue, generalised weakness and dizziness, nocturia and polydipsia. Incidental finding.[patient.info]
Confusion
  • Weak pulses (irregular and thread) Orthostatic Hypotension Depression ST, flat or inverted T wave and prominent u-wave Shallow respirations with diminished breath sounds….due to weakness of accessory muscle movement to breath) Confusion, weak Flaccid[registerednursern.com]
  • This may help explain the still confusing and unresolved relationship between lysozymuria and potassium wasting in leukemia. ( Arch Intern Med 1981;141:786-787)[jamanetwork.com]
  • Symptoms Mild hypokalemia usually results in no symptoms, while moderate hypokalemia results in confusion, disorientation, weakness, and discomfort of muscles. On occasion, moderate hypokalemia causes cramps during exercise.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Snapshot A 56-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by his son due to mild confusion and shortness of breath. Prior to symptom develop he needed to sleep on a recliner due to feeling short of breath while supine.[step2.medbullets.com]
  • […] cramping, bloating Constipation Palpitations (feeling your heart beat irregularly) Passing large amounts of urine or feeling thirsty most of the time Fainting due to low blood pressure Abnormal psychological behavior: depression , psychosis, delirium, confusion[emedicinehealth.com]
Flaccid Paralysis
  • The paralysis that occurs is "flaccid paralysis," or limpness. Paralysis of the muscles of the lungs results in death.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Weak pulses (irregular and thread) Orthostatic Hypotension Depression ST, flat or inverted T wave and prominent u-wave Shallow respirations with diminished breath sounds….due to weakness of accessory muscle movement to breath) Confusion, weak Flaccid[registerednursern.com]
  • Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - Ascending muscle weakness is a manifestation of hyperkalemia that can progress to flaccid paralysis that is comparable to Guillain-Barre syndrome. 10 Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is an autosomal[acls.com]
  • With more severe hypokalemia, flaccid paralysis and hyporeflexia may result.[en.wikipedia.org]
Lethargy
  • Patients with hypertension who frequently complain of unrefreshed sleep, daytime sleepiness, impaired concentration, fatigue, and lethargy commonly suffer from hypokalemia.[empr.com]
  • T wave and prominent u-wave Shallow respirations with diminished breath sounds….due to weakness of accessory muscle movement to breath) Confusion, weak Flaccid paralysis Decrease deep tendon reflexes Decreased bowel sounds Easy way to Remember 7 L’s Lethargy[registerednursern.com]
  • Paralysis [2] Nausea and vomiting Polyuria, nocturia or polydipsia Altered mental status Signs of Ileus Hypotension Cardia arrest Bradycardia or Tachycardia Premature atrial or ventricular beats Hypoventilation/Respiratory distress Respiratory failure Lethargy[physio-pedia.com]
  • The clinical syndrome of hypokalemia includes muscle weakness, lethargy, recumbency and terminal coma. Called also hypopotassemia.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Paresthesia
  • GS most commonly manifests with muscle weakness, salt craving, thirst, nocturia, paresthesia (especially in the face), tetany, and abdominal pain ( 3 ). Blood pressure is typically lower than that in the general population.[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
  • Paresthesias, especially in the face, frequently occur. Remarkably, some patients are completely asymptomatic except for the appearance at adult age of chondrocalcinosis that causes swelling, local heat, and tenderness over the affected joints.[orpha.net]
  • […] stress–burns, surgery, trauma, vomiting, drugs–eg, aspirin, corticosteroids, potassium-wasting diuretics, estrogen, insulin, laxatives, lithium, sodium polystyrene sulfonate/Kaylexate Clinical Hypotension, weak, rapid, irregular pulse, muscle weakness, paresthesias[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • He had already presented at the Emergency Department of his reference hospital in view of general malaise commencing 24 hours previously, with paresthesias in both arms and legs, and in the peribuccal region.[scielo.br]
  • HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Severe hyperkalemia (more than 6.5 mEq per L [6.5 mmol per L]) can cause muscle weakness, ascending paralysis, heart palpitations, and paresthesias.[aafp.org]
Dizziness
  • Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, dizziness, abdominal pains and constipation. Patients can also present with convulsions due to severe metabolic alkalosis or hypomagnesemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Others, such as iron-deficiency anemia, may result from heavy menstrual periods, ulcers, colon pol ... yps and even an iron-poor diet, making you dizzy, cold, weak and irritable.[sharecare.com]
  • The "Cardinal Presentations Section" provides quick and easy reference to differential diagnosis and directed testing for fever in the adult patient; dizziness and vertigo; chest pain; and over 20 other frequently seen presentations in the emergency department[books.google.ca]
  • Clinical signs include salt craving, cramps, muscle weakness and aches, fatigue, generalised weakness and dizziness, nocturia and polydipsia. Incidental finding.[patient.info]

Workup

  • We present a 22-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and repeated hypokalemia, who was finally diagnosed with a small renin-secreting tumor after extensive paraclinical workup and imaging studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] potassium, less than 2.5 mEq/L), as noted in Table 1 . 3 Hypokalemia results either when there is a total-body potassium deficit, or when serum potassium is shifted into the intracellular compartment. 1 – 6 When hypokalemia is detected, a diagnostic workup[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] more practical approach is calculation of the urine potassium-to-creatinine ratio from a spot urine specimen; a ratio greater than 1.5 mEq per mmol (13 mEq per g) is indicative of renal potassium wasting. 18 If no cause is identified with the initial workup[aafp.org]
Hypocapnia
  • […] hyperviscosity syndrome 過粘稠血症候群 hypervitaminosis A ビタミンA過剰症 hypervitaminosis D ビタミンD過剰症 hypoalbuminemia 低アルブミン血症 hypoaldosteronism 低アルドステロン症/低アルドステロン hypoallergenic product 低アレルギー製品 hypocalcemia 低カルシウム血症/低カルシウム血 hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 低カルシウム尿性高カルシウム血症 hypocapnia[jpeds.or.jp]
Bicarbonate Increased
  • Renal losses  Non-reabsorbable anions: Non- reabsorbable anions in the distal nephron like penicillin, nafacillin, dicloxacillin,ticarcillin,oxacillin,carbencilli n and other anions like bicarbonate increase obligatory K excretion and thereby kaliuresis[slideshare.net]
Prolonged QT Interval
  • When the U wave exceeds the T-wave amplitude, the serum potassium level is 3 mEq/L. 2 In severe hypokalemia, T- and U-wave fusion with giant U waves masking the smaller preceding T waves becomes apparent on the ECG. 1,2 A pseudo-prolonged QT interval[doi.org]
  • Changes include: U waves (most important; represents delayed ventricular repolarization) flattened or inverted T waves depressed ST segment prolonged QT interval Prolonged QT interval, prolonging action potential duration, and increasing spontaneous firing[sharinginhealth.ca]
  • In patients in whom one of the periodic paralysis syndromes is suspected, the EKG may be useful diagnostically, since a prolonged QT interval is characteristically seen in Andersen syndrome and not seen in hypokalemic periodic paralysis or thyrotoxic[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Due to prolonged repolarization of ventricular Purkinje fibers, prominent U wave occurs (usually seen at V2 and V3 leads), frequently superimposed upon the T wave and therefore produces the appearance of a prolonged QT interval when serum potassium reduces[en.wikipedia.org]
Prolonged PR Interval
  • SEE ALSO Chest Pain Assessment Cover image depicts an ECG from a person with a potassium level of 1.1 showing the classical ECG changes of ST segment depression, inverted T waves, large U waves, and a slightly prolonged PR interval.[ausmed.com]
  • Hypokalemia Other names Hypokalaemia, hypopotassaemia, hypopotassemia An ECG in a person with a potassium level of 1.1 meq/l showing the classical changes of ST segment depression, inverted T waves, large U waves, and a slightly prolonged PR interval.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The following signs and symptoms should raise the concern for hyperkalemia: Cardiac manifestations: -Peaked T waves -Shortened QT interval -Prolonged PR interval -Flattening of P wave -Widened QRS interval -Bundle branch and atrioventricular conduction[clinicaladvisor.com]
Torsades De Pointes
  • In addition, it reiterates the importance of repeated history taking in a patient with undiagnosed hypokalemia and torsade de pointes which avoided a device therapy. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Our primary objective was to determine the adjusted quantitative associations of clinical predictors with QT prolongation, a defining cause of Torsades de Pointes (TdP).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Furthermore, hypokalemia affects automaticity of the pacemaker cells and leads to multiple arrhythmias such as sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular block, atrial flutter and Torsades de Pointes.[meds.queensu.ca]
  • de pointes, ventricular fibrillation.[escardio.org]
Prominent U Wave
  • Genitourinary Polyuria or sexual dysfunction. [2] Medical Management (current best evidence) Severe hypokalmeia levels that cause ECG changes such as T-wave flattening or prominent U waves require hospital admission.[physio-pedia.com]
  • Weak pulses (irregular and thread) Orthostatic Hypotension Depression ST, flat or inverted T wave and prominent u-wave Shallow respirations with diminished breath sounds….due to weakness of accessory muscle movement to breath) Confusion, weak Flaccid[registerednursern.com]
  • Other electrocardiographic changes of hypokalemia include T wave depression and prominent U waves. Diff.Dx: A. Inadequate dietary potassium intake B. GI losses: vomiting, diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse C.[enotes.tripod.com]
  • Prominent U waves after T waves in hypokalemia.[emedicine.com]
Flattened T Wave
  • T wave Ref range 3.8-5.0 mmol/L–US: 3.8-5.0 mEq/L hy·po·ka·le·mi·a ( hī'pō-kă-lē'mē-ă ) The presence of an abnormally small concentration of potassium ions in the circulating blood; occurs in familial periodic paralysis and in potassium depletion due[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Typical ECG findings when potassium is Flat T waves ST depression Prominent U waves NB : the QT interval may appear prolonged but this is usually a pseudo-prolongation as the flattened T waves merge into the U waves.[patient.info]
  • In severe hypokalemia, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes often occur, including ST-segment depression or S-T–segment flattening, T-wave inversion, and/or U-wave elevation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Electrocardiogram Change
  • Oral replacement is preferred except when there is no functioning bowel or in the setting of electrocardiogram changes, neurologic symptoms, cardiac ischemia, or digitalis therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatments involve inducing potassium loss. 6-8 Electrocardiogram changes in hyperkalemia include a tall peaked T wave.[acls.com]
  • Table 1 Severity, Levels, and Symptoms of Hypokalemia 1 – 4 Severity Level Symptoms Mild 3.0–3.5 mEq/L Asymptomatic Moderate 2.5–3.0 mEq/L Cramping, malaise, myalgia, weakness Severe 2.5 mEq/L Electrocardiogram changes (including ST-segment depression[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Therefore, a first priority is determining the need for urgent treatment through a combination of history, physical examination, laboratory, and electrocardiography findings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PURPOSE: During treatment of bone and joint infections (BJIs) with multiple antibiotic therapy, hypokalemia has been reported as a rare side effect.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment included magnesium and potassium salts and potassium saving diuretics. In general, the long-term prognosis of Gitelman's syndrome is good if the patient adhere with the treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The 156 patients who met the study criteria were categorized by group: those who received potassium via maintenance intravenous fluid (treatment; n 76) and those who did not (control; n 80).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These ominous findings required urgent treatment to halt the crises of rapid leukemic cell proliferation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • PURPOSE: Stroke is independently associated with the common conditions of hypokalemia and supraventricular ectopy, and we hypothesize that the combination of excessive supraventricular ectopic activity and hypokalemia has a synergistic impact on the prognosis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In general, the long-term prognosis of Gitelman's syndrome is good if the patient adhere with the treatment. KEYWORDS: Gitelman’s syndrome; Hypokalemia; Hypomagnesemia; Metabolic alkalosis; Tubulopathy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS Hypokalemia at the initial admission is associated with poor prognosis at 3 months in first-ever AIS patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis : good if condition recognized and managed appropriately. Pathogenesis Etiology Excessive potassium loss Gastrointestinal: Vomiting Vomiting . Diarrhea Diarrhea: chronic . Renal: Renal failure Kidney: chronic kidney disease (CKD) .[vetstream.com]

Etiology

  • These diverse etiologies present a diagnostic and management challenge to the ER physician who is tasked to minimize unnecessary diagnostics while not missing any significant disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This syndrome is most commonly caused by exogenous steroid use, but other etiologies have also been reported in the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this case report, we describe an uncommon etiology of hypokalemia in a patient with disordered eating. Copyright  2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (Hyponatremia secondary to congestive heart failure) Potassium Electrolyte Disturbances Hyponatremia Hypernatremia Definition serum sodium of 135 mmol/L Etiology pseudohyponatremia hyperglycemia hyperlipidemia hypervolemic hyponatremia congestive heart[step2.medbullets.com]
  • In this light we discuss the possible etiology of proton pump inhibitor related hypomagnesaemia/hypokalemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Severe hypokalemia 2.5 mEq/L Epidemiology Common electrolyte disorder – 20% of hospitalized patients 10-40% of patients on thiazide diuretics (Rosen 2014) Causes Renal Losses (diuretics, steroid use, DKA, hyperaldosteronism) Increased non-renal losses[coreem.net]
  • The Council, a multidisciplinary group comprising specialists in cardiology, hypertension, epidemiology, pharmacy, and compliance, was formed to examine the critical role of potassium in clinical practice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relation between potassium intake and the prevalence of hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Frequency United States In a study of about 47,000 emergency department visits in which adult patients underwent potassium measurements, Singer et al found that 1 in 11 patients had hyperkalemia or hypokalemia, with the potassium level being[emedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology : Renal salt wasting due to a defect in thiazide Na /Cl - co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubule.[ebmconsult.com]
  • RESULTS: Ingestion of massive amounts of cola can lead to severe hypokalemia through several pathophysiologic mechanisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We also provide an appraisal of the pathophysiology of "apparent mineralcorticoid excess" syndrome, still an often forgotten or unrecognized cause of hypokalemia and hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology and management of hypokalemia: a clinical perspective. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;7:75-84. The ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium determines, in part, the cellular membrane potential.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 9th ed. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill; 2014.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • In conclusion, "concomitant use of hyperkalemia-inducing drugs" is a factor associated with preventing hypokalemia accompanying anti-EGFR MoAbs administration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early detection and treatment allow clinician to prevent morbidity and mortality from cardiac arrhythmias and respiratory failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To prevent cardiac conduction disturbances, intravenous calcium is administered to patients with hyperkalemic electrocardiography changes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • What Are The Ways To Prevent Hypokalemia? To prevent Hypokalemia, as stated above, intake of a diet rich in potassium is vital. This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer[epainassist.com]
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine if administering potassium preemptively in maintenance intravenous fluid would prevent episodes of hypokalemia and reduce the need for potassium boluses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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Last updated: 2014-05-06 22:04