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Hyposmia


Presentation

  • This description further confirms the heterogeneous presentation of the C9ORF72 mutation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Brain activation in response to odors was present in patients with congenital hyposmia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Hypogeusia, with or without dysgenusia, and hyposmia, with or without dysosmia, followed an influenzal-like infection in 87 of 143 consecutive patients who presented at the Taste and Smell Clinic at the NIH with taste and smell abnormalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We studied 25 patients presenting with perennial rhinitis. Fifteen patients expressed hyposmia as a significant symptom.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 44-year-old man presented with a rare subfrontal schwannoma with headache. He had undergone radiation therapy for a pineal lesion 30 years previously, but the histology was not verified.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Camping
  • Before treatment, all patients had lower than normal levels of nasal mucus cAMP and cGMP.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Inguinal Hernia
  • Each patient had bilateral inguinal hernias, one or two undescended testes, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyposmia
  • Those patients with initial symptoms of hyposmia significantly improved their UPSIT scores (p 0.00009) and their VAS scores for hyposmia (p 0.00133).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Brain activation in response to odors was present in patients with congenital hyposmia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: Smell loss (hyposmia) inhibits flavor perception and influences food intake. To compensate for flavor loss, some patients with hyposmia appear to increase salt usage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sinusitis or nasal polyps or both may underlie many cases of allergy-related hyposmia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Long Arm
  • Only patients with these two specific sensory abnormalities expressed the Fy b antigen (encoded by the ACKR1 gene on the long arm of chromosome 1) at frequencies different from controls. Copyright 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Small Hand
  • Arthur Wu is one of only a small handful of fellowship trained endoscopic sinus and skull base surgeons in the world.[beverlyhillssinus.com]
Suggestibility
  • Previous work with the OCM suggests that, within an individual, hyposmia is associated with a stable shift in odorant perception.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These data suggest that the olfactory dysfunction in PD is not a simple reflection of impaired sniffing. Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that the olfactory impairments may precede the onset of motor symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This suggests that people with TBI are not actually impaired at detecting intensity of emotion but are less likely to perceive the target emotion as the dominant emotion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because dopamine is known to inhibit olfactory transmission in the olfactory glomeruli, we suggest that the increase of dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb is responsible for the hyposmia in Parkinson patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The operative findings and absence of hyposmia suggest that the meningeal branch of the trigeminal nerve was the origin of the tumor. However, the possibility of radiation-induced reactive Schwann cells cannot be excluded.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Meningism
  • The operative findings and absence of hyposmia suggest that the meningeal branch of the trigeminal nerve was the origin of the tumor. However, the possibility of radiation-induced reactive Schwann cells cannot be excluded.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several metabolic states and syndromes have been associated with cerebral and meningeal calcification, and these patients may develop cranial nerve dysfunction.[ajnr.org]
Neglect
  • Abstract Hyposmia is a neglected symptom in patients with rhinitis. We studied 25 patients presenting with perennial rhinitis. Fifteen patients expressed hyposmia as a significant symptom.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Astereognosis
  • Each was unable orally to recognize standard plastic forms (astereognosis) though each could recognize the forms manually. Each patient had bilateral inguinal hernias, one or two undescended testes, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mononeuropathy
  • We speculate that hyposmia in this case may have been caused by diabetic mononeuropathy of the first cranial nerve.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • […] has no relevant financial relationships to disclose. ) Originally released April 21, 2013; last updated December 18, 2018; expires December 18, 2021 Overview In this article, the author explains the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup[medlink.com]
  • Imaging studies are indicated in the workup of chemosensory disorders if the history and physical examination do not provide a clear diagnosis.[ajnr.org]

Treatment

  • RESULTS: Oral theophylline treatment improved taste and smell acuity in 6 patients after 2 to 12 months of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Before treatment, all patients had lower than normal levels of nasal mucus cAMP and cGMP.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Prior to treatment, all patients stated that they could not smell; these losses were confirmed by standard psychophysical tests.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODOLOGY: Monorhinal olfactory testing for odour identification and threshold was performed in hyposmic patients using Sniffin Sticks, before and after treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Improvement persisted as long as treatment was continued, which extended from 6 to 72 months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Several different pathophysiologic processes, such as head trauma, aging, autoimmunity, and toxic exposures, can contribute to smell impairment, with distinct implications concerning prognosis and possible treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These results have implications for the prognosis of patients with A53T PD. Moreover, as the archetypal α-synucleinopathy, such results may give insights into tPD.[n.neurology.org]
  • Prognosis for these patients is higher than other categories of olfactory loss, with 40% of trauma patients regaining some or all of their sense of smell ( 4 ).[ajnr.org]
  • Treatment and prognosis Treatment is primarily aimed at restoring normal pubertal development and in some case normal fertility. The former can be achieved by administration of exogenous sex steroids, appropriate to the gender of the patient.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Currently, one of the known strong identifiers of prognosis subtype is the co-occurrence of RBD and PD ( Arnaldi et al., 2016 ).[frontiersin.org]

Etiology

  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed prevalence of hyposmia among patients with allergic rhinitis suggests that this is a major etiologic factor contributing to smell disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology of Olfactory Dysfunction Potential etiologies of hyposmia include idiopathic origin (26%), head injury (19%), prior upper respiratory tract infection (URI) (17%), sinonasal disease (16%), toxic exposure (6%), multiple causes (5%), congenital[ajnr.org]
  • The etiologies for hyposmia are much the same as those for anosmia (complete loss of the sense of smell). Physical obstruction of the nasal cavities, due to inflammation (rhinitis), polyps and/or a deviated septum, may reduce olfactory acuity.[link.springer.com]
  • A decreased sense of smell can have many different etiologies. Over time, all individuals suffer from gradual decreases in their sense of smell just as their eyesight or hearing may diminish with age.[beverlyhillsent.com]
  • […] disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, asperger's syndrome, and autism, to name but a few, may be viewed as points on a spectrum of developmental disabilities in which those points share features in common and possibly etiology[books.google.de]

Epidemiology

  • Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that the olfactory impairments may precede the onset of motor symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recent epidemiological reports have shown that despite fairly low self-reported prevalence of these disorders in large population studies, when validated smell identification or threshold tests are used, they reveal quite a high prevalence of hyposmia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Except for hyposmia, some other NMSs such as constipation and depression may also precede the motor symptoms in epidemiological studies [ 8 - 10 ].[alliedacademies.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • BACKGROUND: Hyposmia is a cardinal early symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying it remain unclear. Resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) demonstrates spontaneous neuronal activity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this study we investigated the pathophysiology of hyposmia in PD using dopamine transporter (DAT) PET.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several different pathophysiologic processes, such as head trauma, aging, autoimmunity, and toxic exposures, can contribute to smell impairment, with distinct implications concerning prognosis and possible treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moscow State Medical University has no relevant financial relationships to disclose. ) Originally released April 21, 2013; last updated December 18, 2018; expires December 18, 2021 Overview In this article, the author explains the clinical presentation, pathophysiology[medlink.com]
  • The pathophysiological background of increased FC between these canonical networks and outside brain regions was imprecise.[journals.plos.org]

Prevention

  • How to prevent impaired smell There’s no sure way to prevent the loss of smell. You can minimize the risk of contracting colds or bacterial infections by taking the following steps: Wash your hands frequently throughout the day.[healthline.com]
  • This loss of smell can come about due to several health factors, some of which can be treated and prevent any additional loss of smell capability. However, permanent loss of at least part of the ability to smell is not unusual.[wisegeekhealth.com]
  • Intranasal insulin prevents anesthesia-induced spatial learning and memory deficit in mice. Sci Rep. 2016 ;6: 21186. Google Scholar Medline 11. Veyseller, B, Ozucer, B, Karaaltin, AB.[journals.sagepub.com]
  • For instance, the presence of large polyps in the olfactory area prevents the molecules that stimulate the receptors from binding to them.[scielo.br]
  • Finally, findings from our current work were based on cross-sectional observations and hence have prevented us from making any inference about the trajectory of WM network alterations in hypos-PD patients, and the impact of these changes on cognition[nature.com]

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