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Idiopathic Hypersomnia


Presentation

  • Idiopathic hypersomnia and Kleine–Levin syndrome have attracted much interest in recent years, and an overview of recent progresses is presented in this chapter.[oxfordmedicine.com]
  • S...Sforza E 2011 40 Presentations of primary hypersomnia in Chinese children. ( 21532956 ) Han F...Mignot E 2011 41 Effect of levothyroxine on prolonged nocturnal sleep time and excessive daytime somnolence in patients with idiopathic hypersomnia. ([malacards.org]
  • However, the influence of exogenous factors on the observations of the present study can be ruled out due to identical incubation conditions.[frontiersin.org]
  • Bruxism is present frequently during sleep. Men and women are affected equally. Obesity is uncommon in this condition.[beatcfsandfms.org]
Fatigue
  • […] is characterized by persistent or relapsing fatigue that does not resolve with bed rest.[beatcfsandfms.org]
Physician
  • The symptomatic hypersomnias are less well known to sleep physicians and often neglected by specialists, either internists or psychiatrists, although they may seriously impact the quality of life of patients Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine[oxfordmedicine.com]
Hyperthermia
  • Idiopathic hypersomnia: Investigations and follow-up. ( 27838089 ) Leu-Semenescu S...Dauvilliers Y 2017 12 Case Report of a Patient With Idiopathic Hypersomnia and a Family History of Malignant Hyperthermia Undergoing General Anesthesia: An Overview of[malacards.org]
Infectious Mononucleosis
  • Guilleminault C, Mondini S: Infectious mononucleosis and excesive daytime sleepiness: A long term follow-up study. Arch Intern Med 146:1333-1335, 1986 15.[beatcfsandfms.org]
Malocclusion
  • Anatomic abnormalities include a triangular face, a high and narrow arched palate, a long uvula, a class II malocclusion of the mouth (hypoplastic mandible), and, at times, a retroposition of the mandible.[beatcfsandfms.org]
Suggestibility
  • A genetic basis for idiopathic hypersomnia is suggested by several works.[beatcfsandfms.org]
  • However, a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests Modafinil might be efficacious in treating IH patients ( 5 ). Sleep regulation seems to be disturbed in patients suffering from IH ( 6, 7 ).[frontiersin.org]
Neglect
  • The symptomatic hypersomnias are less well known to sleep physicians and often neglected by specialists, either internists or psychiatrists, although they may seriously impact the quality of life of patients Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine[oxfordmedicine.com]

Workup

HLA-DR5
  • Despite some reports that suggest an increased frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Cw2 and HLA DR5 in idiopathic hypersomnia, [ 19 ] HLA typing is of no help in the positive diagnosis of idiopathic hypersomnia.[beatcfsandfms.org]

Treatment

  • Getting Closer to Certainty in Idiopathic Hypersomnia Diagnosis. ( 30952230 ) Trotti LM 2019 4 Update on treatment for idiopathic hypersomnia. ( 29250981 ) Evangelista E...Dauvilliers Y 2018 5 Alternative diagnostic criteria for idiopathic hypersomnia[malacards.org]
  • […] day -- even while at work, or during a meal or conversation Increased sleep time -- up to 14 to 18 hours a day Other symptoms may include: Anxiety Feeling irritated Loss of appetite Low energy Restlessness Slow thinking or speech Trouble remembering Treatment[account.allinahealth.org]
  • ., Auger RR, Slocumb NL, Morgenthaler TI Idiopathic hypersomnia: clinical features and response to treatment. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 ;15: 562 - 568. Google Scholar Nevšímalová S., Blažejová K., Illnerová H., et al.[journals.sagepub.com]
  • TREATMENT Treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia is far from satisfactory. Stimulant drugs, such as dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, mazindol, or 581 pemoline, are the most commonly prescribed medications.[beatcfsandfms.org]
  • Currently there is no admitted medical treatment for IH. However, a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests Modafinil might be efficacious in treating IH patients ( 5 ).[frontiersin.org]

Etiology

  • IH is a primary sleep disorder of not yet finally resolved etiology characterized by a high and disabling amount of sleep required during the day, despite normal or even prolonged sleep times at night.[frontiersin.org]

Epidemiology

  • No current reliable epidemiological data are available due to a lack of any clinical observational studies.[frontiersin.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • A contribution to pathophysiology of idiopathic hypersomnia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2000 ;53(suppl): 366 - 370. Google Scholar Sforza E., Gaudreau H., Petit D., Montplaisir J. Homeostatic sleep regulation in patients with idiopathic hypersomnia.[journals.sagepub.com]
  • Apart from genetic factors, an enhanced activity of a GABA A -receptor stimulating-factor could be detected in vitro in the CSF of IH patients that could also contribute to the pathophysiological mechanism of these patients ( 10 ).[frontiersin.org]
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY In contrast with narcolepsy, no animal model of idiopathic hypersomnia is available; thus, experimental approaches are limited.[beatcfsandfms.org]

Prevention

  • Lifestyle changes that can help ease symptoms and prevent injury include: Avoid alcohol and medicines that can make the condition worse Avoid operating motor vehicles or using dangerous equipment Avoid working at night or social activities that delay[account.allinahealth.org]

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