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Infantile Apnea


Presentation

  • An approach to evaluation and management is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Multiple linear regression analysis determined that smokers tended to be younger and have lower birth weight infants who presented earlier with apnea than infants of nonsmokers.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • ORPHA:70590 Synonym(s): Apnea of infancy Prevalence: - Inheritance: - Age of onset: Neonatal, Infancy ICD-10: P28.4 OMIM: - UMLS: - MeSH: - GARD: 6779 MedDRA: - The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]
  • The findings suggest that, although there were apparently no present developmental ramifications of the apnea, these infants are at risk for being perceived more negatively.[tandfonline.com]
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • Abstract Primary care practitioners are presented with many concerns and questions from families about Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), apnea, and monitors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some cases of infantile apnea are associated with the sudden infant death syndrome. Notable symptoms include noisy breathing when asleep, tone changes, color changes (infant becoming bluish or pale) & cessation of breathing.[signssymptoms.org]
  • infant death syndrome (SIDS).[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
Hunting
  • In: Beckerman, Brouillette, Hunt (eds.). Respiratory control disorders in infants and children. Baltimore, Williams, and Wilkins, 1992; 352-370. FROM THE INTERNET Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Victor A.[rarediseases.org]
  • Pediatrics . 2001 ; 107 : 437 – 441 Hunt CE. Sudden infant death syndrome and other causes of infant mortality: diagnosis, mechanisms, and risk for recurrence in siblings.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Fatigue
  • If they experience poor sleep quality, daytime fatigue or sleepiness, snoring, or breathing issues in sleep, they should talk with their health care provider.[epilepsy.com]
  • Parents who use home apnea monitoring for their infants have been shown to have higher stress scores, greater levels of fatigue, and poorer health than parents of infants without home apnea monitors. 4-8 As a family physician, you are likely to encounter[mdedge.com]
  • However, there is no evidence that maternal (or paternal) personality or anxiety causes colic. 11 In families with a colicky infant, there may be problems with communication and family functioning, as well as parental anxiety and fatigue. 12 NEURODEVELOPMENTAL[aafp.org]
Hypothermia
  • Metabolic - Hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia or acidosis Hematological - Anemia Gastrointestinal - NEC or gastroesophageal reflux Temperature Regulation - Hypothermia or hyperthermia Drugs - Prenatal exposure with transplacental transfer to the[uichildrens.org]
  • The alpha2-adrenergic agonist brimonidine (Alphagan) is contraindicated in children under age 2 because of potentially serious lethargy, hypotonia, hypothermia, and CNS depression.[eyewiki.aao.org]
Periodic Breathing
  • We report three siblings with apnea and periodic breathing, as well as biochemical defects consistent with a non‐specific abnormality of beta oxidation. One infant died a witnessed sudden infant death.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • Pneumograms were classified as normal, borderline or abnormal after studying the following factors-(Apnea density (A6/D), Prolonged apnea, Periodic breathing, Disorganized breathing and Bradycardia).[nature.com]
  • ., 1975, Apneic spells and periodic breathing, in: Pathophysiology and Management of the Newborn (G. B. Avery, ed.), p. 740, Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa. Google Scholar 47.[link.springer.com]
  • Kelly DH, Walker A, Cahen L, Shannon DC: Periodic breathing in siblings of SIDS victims. Pediatrics 1980;66:515-520. Shannon DC, Kelly D: Impaired regulation of alverolar ventilation and the sudden infant death syndrome. Science 1977;1973:367-368.[apha.org]
  • Khan A, Qurashi M, Kwiatkowski K et al (2005) Measurement of the CO 2 apneic threshold in newborn infants: possible relevance for periodic breathing and apnea. J Appl Physiol 98(4):1171–1176 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 43.[doi.org]
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration
  • Focus will include articles on CSA due to other Medical Disorders, Cheyne-Stokes Respiration, Central Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease, Complex Sleep Apnea,Adaptive servo-ventilation Treatment, Drug induced central apneas- Mechanism and Therapies[books.google.it]
  • . , 1965, Efect of aminophylline on respiratory center sensitivity in Cheyne-Stokes respiration and in pulmonary emphysema, N. Engl. J. Med. 273 :1447. PubMed Google Scholar 107. Peabody, J. L., Neese, A. L., Philip, A. G.[link.springer.com]
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
  • Pack CRC Press , 21 mag 2002 - 736 pagine Considers the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease, right and left ventricular dysfunction, and hypertension.[books.google.it]
Social Isolation
  • In addition, continued support services are needed to alleviate the social isolation experienced by the families of these infants.[tandfonline.com]
Headache
  • If left untreated, sleep apnea can increase the risk of health problems, including: High blood pressure Stroke Heart failure , irregular heart beats, and heart attacks Diabetes Depression Worsening of ADHD Headaches In addition, untreated sleep apnea[webmd.com]
  • Patients may awaken in the morning with a headache.[epilepsy.com]
Poor Coordination
  • There are three major categories of apnea known as central, obstructive, and mixed apnea. [1] [2] [3] Central Apnea [ edit ] Central apnea is characterized by insufficient responsiveness from respiratory centers such as the medulla, which results in poor[en.wikipedia.org]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • Two infants experienced short, generalized, tonic-clonic seizures soon after being treated with C (10 mg/kg). Repeat metabolic studies were normal and C levels were within the therapeutic range (8-20 mg/l).[nature.com]

Workup

  • Apnea referrals Remote alarm respiratory control respiratory effort Secondary Apnea sepsis short apnea sibling significant apnea Sl DS STATEWIDE Sudden lnfant Death Symptomatic unexplained Wisconsin Association Wisconsin Division Wisconsin SlDS Center workup[books.google.it]
  • Diagnostic workup before diagnosing colic. Arch Fam Med . 2000;9:282–3. 14. Weissbluth M. Colic. In: Burg FD, Gellis SS, Kagan BM. Gellis & Kagan’s Current pediatric therapy. 16th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999:674–8. 15. Levitzky S, Cooper R.[aafp.org]

Treatment

  • This extensively revised and expanded fourth edition covers causes, diagnosis, treatment, and surgical techniques as well as the pros and cons of specific therapies.[books.google.it]
  • Last updated: 2/29/2012 FDA-Approved Treatments The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
  • This book has been created for patients who have decided to make education and research an integral part of the treatment process. ...[amazon.com]
  • The material is in no way intended to replace professional medical care by a qualified specialist and should not be used as a basis for diagnosis or treatment.[orpha.net]

Prognosis

  • Part I explores basic techniques to researching infantile apnea (e.g. finding guidelines on diagnosis, treatments, and prognosis), followed by a number of topics, including information on how to get in touch with organizations, associations, or other[amazon.com]
  • Prognosis The prognosis for primary congenital glaucoma depends on the age of onset. Glaucoma that presents at birth is more difficult to treat, with at least half of the affected eyes becoming legally blind.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • One analysis found that children who die from SIDS and those who experience ALTE have very similar histories and clinical factors. 25 Approximately 7% of infants who die from SIDS have had an ALTE. 2 Overall, the long-term prognosis for infants who have[mdedge.com]

Etiology

  • APNEA and later respiratory distress of unknown etiology are the two types of respiratory problems that are most important in the newborn period. Their physiologic background is the subject of the first part of this review.[nejm.org]
  • […] anesthesia; infants who feed rapidly, cough frequently, or choke during feeding; and male infants. 19,21 The most common causes of ALTE (in descending order) are gastroesophageal reflux, seizure disorder, and lower respiratory tract infection. 22 The etiology[mdedge.com]
  • Etiologies and risk factors Epilepsy and sleep apnea syndrome have a reciprocal influence on one another that may exacerbate the processes of both conditions: The apneic episodes lead to hypoxemia and to chronic sleep deprivation, because multiple arousals[epilepsy.com]
  • Chronic - The management of apnea of prematurity always involves diagnosing and correcting other potential etiologies, before attributing a specific neonate's apnea to prematurity alone.[uichildrens.org]

Epidemiology

  • [5] Cases of obstructive apnea are rarely found in infants that are healthy. [3] Mixed Apnea [ edit ] Mixed apnea is a combination of both central and obstructive factors. [1] The majority of premature infants with sleep apnea have mixed apnea. [3] Epidemiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Many studies that reported an increased risk for siblings were performed before the current understanding of the epidemiology evolved.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • This is critical not only for the obvious epidemiological implications with respect to SIDS, but also to assure proper counseling of parents.[apha.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] to 25 percent for infants weighing less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg). [3] Studies have found that almost 2% of the pediatric population experience obstructive sleep apnea. [1] References [ edit ] a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Pediatric Apnea: Background, Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • J., 1975, Apneic spells and periodic breathing, in: Pathophysiology and Management of the Newborn (G. B. Avery, ed.), p. 740, Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa. Google Scholar 47.[link.springer.com]
  • Neonatology: Pathophysiology and Management of the Newborn. 3rd ed., Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987: 483-484. Martin RJ, Miller MJ, Carlo WA. Pathogenesis of apnea in preterm infants. J Pediatr 1986;109:733-741. Rall TW.[uichildrens.org]

Prevention

  • Home monitoring limits asphyxia and may prevent death in infants thought to be at risk for recurrent apnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recognition of these disorders and initiation of appropriate therapy may prevent SIDS. Metabolic pathways develop during gestation and post‐natally.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • Systematic meta-analysis has shown it to be effective in preventing extubation failure and for the treatment of AOP [ 45 ].[doi.org]
  • Tomashek, MD Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Linda L.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • […] would be successful in preventing unexpected death.[unicare.com]

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