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Infantile Colic


Presentation

  • The aims of this review are to present recent research investigating the connection between infantile colic and migraine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Irritable Infant
  • Rabbitt, Irritable Infant, Nelson Pediatric Symptom-Based Diagnosis, 10.1016/B978-0-323-39956-2.00026-1, (411-420.e2), (2018).[dx.doi.org]
  • All infants presenting with excessive infant crying between July 2007 and March 2008 were categorized into three subgroups, (A) infant colic, (B) irritable infant syndrome of musculoskeletal origin (IISMO) and (C) inefficient feeding crying infants with[chiro.org]
  • Do not discharge an irritable infant if "extreme fussiness" has not resolved, particularly if a "red flag" is present. Questions 1. Which of these are NOT a feature of the infant colic syndrome?.[hawaii.edu]
  • Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of omeprazole in irritable infants with gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr. 2003;143(2):219–223. 27. Iacovou M, Ralston RA, Muir J, et al. Dietary management of infantile colic: a systematic review.[web.archive.org]
Edema of the Finger
  • […] of toes, fingers, or penis; hair found curled up near infant Hair wrapped around finger, toe, or penis None Inadequate bottle feeding Aggressive feeding Clinical dehydration, loss of fat from cheeks, weight loss or poor weight gain Weight increase with[web.archive.org]
Colic
  • Family life 1 year after infantile colic. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:1032–6. 13. Reust CE, Blake RL Jr. Diagnostic workup before diagnosing colic. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:282–3. 14. Weissbluth M. Colic. In: Burg FD, Gellis SS, Kagan BM.[web.archive.org]
  • At this stage, the probiotic cannot be recommended for treating infantile colic in formula-fed infants, nor can it be routinely used to prevent infantile colic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Infantile colic, prolonged crying and maternal postnatal depression. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 1344–1348. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 11. Barr, R. G. (2002). Changing our understanding of infant colic.[doi.org]
Abdominal Pain
  • The population studied was matched with healthy control without history of recurrent abdominal pain, enrolled among pediatricians practicing primary health care.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms: Paroxysms (sudden attacks) of crying Apparent abdominal pain Irritability Suggestions: Some doctors believe that colic exists in order to change deeply ingrained relationship habits. Colic demands attention.[himalayawellness.com]
  • […] in·fan·tile col·ic episodes of abdominal pain due to abnormal muscular contraction of the intestine in infants. infantile colic Etymology: L, infans, unable to speak; Gk, kolikos, pain in the colon a descriptive term for a suggested intestinal cause of[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Nausea
  • […] abdominal tenderness R10.825 Periumbilic rebound abdominal tenderness R10.826 Epigastric rebound abdominal tenderness R10.827 Generalized rebound abdominal tenderness R10.83 Colic R10.84 Generalized abdominal pain R10.9 Unspecified abdominal pain R11 Nausea[icd10data.com]
  • Rhinoconjunctivitis Bronchial asthma T cell-mediated (with or without involvement of IgE) Delayed type reaction 24 hours after food ingestion In infants and adults Baker’s asthma in adults Gastrointestinal tract Colitis Diarrhea Gastroenteritis Anorexia Nausea[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hepatosplenomegaly
  • Red Flags in the Evaluation of the Crying Infant Finding Possible cause Distended abdomen Abdominal mass, hepatosplenomegaly, Hirschsprung disease, intestinal malrotation with volvulus, necrotizing enterocolitis Fever Acute otitis media, appendicitis,[web.archive.org]
Impulsivity
  • A PulStar Function Recording and Analysis System (PulStar FRAS, Sense Technology, Inc, Pittsburgh, Penn) device was used to administer light impulses (approximately 1.7 joules, which produced a 3 to 4 lb force) at each segmental level throughout the dorsal[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Report of Two Cases J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002 (Jan); 25 (1): 58–62 FULL TEXT A PulStar Function Recording and Analysis System (PulStar FRAS, Sense Technology, Inc, Pittsburgh, Penn) device was used to administer light impulses[chiro.org]
  • Such manipulatory techniques may include adjustments to dysfunctional vertebrae (identified, for example, by misalignment or by reduced motion), achieved by introducing an impulse into the spinal column to correct the dysfunction.[doi.org]
Forgetful
  • Michael Schemann, Thomas Frieling and Paul Enck, To learn, to remember, to forget—How smart is the gut?, Acta Physiologica, e13296, (2019).[doi.org]

Workup

  • […] may be worthwhile; positive results may indicate an underlying GI problem Stool may be tested for occult blood to rule out cow’s milk allergy Irritability and crying may be associated with GERD because of the pain associated with esophagitis See Workup[emedicine.com]
  • Diagnostic workup before diagnosing colic. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:282–3. 14. Weissbluth M. Colic. In: Burg FD, Gellis SS, Kagan BM. Gellis & Kagan’s Current pediatric therapy. 16th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999:674–8. 15. Levitzky S, Cooper R.[web.archive.org]

Treatment

  • Primary end-points were crying time at mid-treatment, at the end of treatment and at a 1-month follow-up. A 30-min mean difference (MD) in crying time between acupuncture and control was predefined as a clinically important difference.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Neither concomitant treatments nor side effects were reported.[doi.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis The prognosis is excellent. Most infants with colic recover spontaneously by 3-4 months of age.[patient.info]
  • The prognosis is good for the majority who suffer with transient problems over the first 2 years of life. References 1. Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS). Colic- infantile [online]. 2011. Available at: [Accessed March 2013] 2.[jfhc.co.uk]

Etiology

  • The etiology is unknown although many hypotheses have been proposed. Colic can be very frustrating for parents to deal with, thus it is important to provide reassurance and resources.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of infantile colic remains unclear. Many risk factors assessed but no one is certain. We invastigate ethiology, risk factors and treatment methods of infantile colic. Key words: Infantile colic, ethiology, treatment[scopemed.org]
  • The term is derived from “kolikos”,the Greek word for colon Various etiologies have been proposed, with gastrointestinal etiologies being a leading thought Classic definitions of colic: Wessel criteria : episodes of crying 3 hours/day, 3 days/week, for[nuemblog.com]
  • Etiology Unknown cause Two fold risk associated with maternal smokers Thoroughly studied with inconclusive results Hyperperistalsis Cow's Milk Allergy (may account for 10-15% of colic) Lactose Intolerance Parent or Infant relationship disturbance Neurophysiologic[fpnotebook.com]

Epidemiology

  • REVIEW ARTICLE Corresponding Author E-mail address: camilleri.michael@mayo.edu Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.), Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College[doi.org]
  • Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity Clinical Review State of the Art Review BMJ 2015 ; 351 doi: (Published 05 October 2015) Cite this as: BMJ 2015;351:h4347 Benjamin Lebwohl, assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology 1 2, Jonas F Ludvigsson[dx.doi.org]
  • At that time little evidence regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic work-up, treatment strategies and follow-up was available. Consequently the criteria for the clinical entities were more experience than evidence based.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Baby colic is very common, occurring in round 10-30% of infants. [ 1 ] It affects males and females equally. Breast-fed and formula-fed infants are equally affected.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • However, the pathophysiological clues indicate that infantile colic is a shared pathology between the mother and the baby, especially in the case of breastfeeding mothers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology has been described in various ways in different studies and yet not conclusive.[banglajol.info]
  • The pathophysiology of this clinical phenotype is poorly understood, but it is a cause of increasing interest in gluten-free diets in the general population.[dx.doi.org]
  • Laboratory of Experimental Pathophysiology IRCCS Bari Italy[link.springer.com]

Prevention

  • Meanwhile, L. reuteri DSM 17938 has been suggested, for the first time, to be possibly effective in preventing infantile colic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Shel SC Banks, Megan R Thomas, Morris Gordon, Chris Wallace and Anthony K Akobeng, Probiotics to prevent infantile colic, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2016).[doi.org]

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