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Infectious Enteritis


Presentation

  • The bacterial infections tended to present earlier than the viral infections, and the most frequent presenting symptom was diarrhea. Complete resolution was achieved in 17 (94%) incidences with the appropriate antimicrobial or conservative therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The overlap in clinical presentation of IE and rejection presents a diagnostic challenge. There are few studies examining IE after ITx. The aim of this study is to evaluate a single center experience with IE after ITx.[journals.lww.com]
  • Presented at the 21st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, Nov 4–6, 1981. Google Scholar 29. Black RE, Jackson RJ, Tsai T, et al.[link.springer.com]
  • Patients with small bowel enteritis and colitis have similar presenting symptoms. Diarrhea and abdominal cramps are almost uniformly present.[academic.oup.com]
  • Vomiting is uncommon but may be present if the duodenum and stomach are severely affected. Fever Loss of appetite Signs of nutrient deficiency (malabsorptio) Overall the clinical presentation will depend on the extent of small intestine involvement.[healthhype.com]
Intravenous Drugs
  • Drug Abuse and Infection 849 Alcohol Abuse Host Defenses and Infection 853 Fever in Travelers to Tropical Countries 859 Endemic and Travelers Diarrhea in Tropical Countries 875 Eosinophilia in Travelers to Tropical Countries 881 Infections after Animal[books.google.de]
Diarrhea
  • Abstract Enteric infections are a major cause of diarrhea in the United States. Pathogens can cause diarrhea by elaboration of toxins that affect the intestinal mucosa or by direct invasion of the intestinal wall.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: From May 2000 to May 2011, 56 renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus at our hospital suffered from infectious enteritis with diarrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • NOS ( R19.7 ) functional diarrhea ( K59.1 ) infectious gastroenteritis and colitis NOS ( A09 ) neonatal diarrhea (noninfective) ( P78.3 ) psychogenic diarrhea ( F45.8 ) K52.9 ) diarrhea NOS ( ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code R19.7 Diarrhea, unspecified 2016[icd10data.com]
  • . : Fecal screening tests in the approach to acute infectious diarrhea: a scientific overview . Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996, 15 :486–494. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 15. Hoshiko M: Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhea .[link.springer.com]
Intestinal Disease
  • Current topics covered include intestinal diversions requiring temporary diversions, medical and surgical treatments for inflammatory bowel disease, colo-rectal cancers advances and ischemic intestinal disease.[books.google.de]
  • diseases Intestinal trichomoniasis Sarcocystosis Sarcosporidiosis A07.9 Protozoal intestinal disease, unspecified Flagellate diarrhoea Protozoal: · colitis · diarrhoea · dysentery A08 Viral and other specified intestinal infections Excludes: influenza[apps.who.int]
Myelopathy
  • Urinary Tract Infections 649 Genital Herpes Syphilis and Genital Ulcer Disease 657 Urethritis Epidydimitis Orchitis Prostatitis 669 Vulvovaginitis Cervicitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 681 Meningitis 689 Encephalitis 703 Infections Associated with Myelopathy[books.google.de]
Radiculopathy
  • Infections 649 Genital Herpes Syphilis and Genital Ulcer Disease 657 Urethritis Epidydimitis Orchitis Prostatitis 669 Vulvovaginitis Cervicitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 681 Meningitis 689 Encephalitis 703 Infections Associated with Myelopathy Radiculopathy[books.google.de]

Workup

  • Standardization of workup up may contribute to the higher rates of detection. Further, the occurrence of IE impacts patient care, requiring more frequent and longer hospitalizations and treatments.[journals.lww.com]
  • Rabeneck L: Diagnostic workup strategies for patients with HIV-related chronic diarrhea: what is the end result? J Clin Gastroenterol 1993, 16 :245–250. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 20.[link.springer.com]
Listeria Monocytogenes
  • . : An outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever due to Listeria monocytogenes in milk . N Engl J Med 1997, 336 :100–105. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 5. Hamer DH: IDCP guidelines: infectious diarrhea (part II) and food poisoning .[link.springer.com]
  • ., Listeria monocytogenes ) and raw seafood ( Vibrio sp .) Contact with other unwell people ( Shigella sp., E. coli O157, Salmonella sp., Campylobacter sp., Giardia sp .)[bpac.org.nz]

Treatment

  • Treatment decisions are largely based on the clinical condition of the child. Oral rehydration therapy is addressed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With supportive care and appropriate treatment, resolution is possible in the majority of cases. Differentiating rejection and infection on histopathology can be difficult and relies on cultures and immunostaining.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antibiotic treatment is indicated if symptoms are severe or prolonged. Treatment may also be reasonable in food handlers, childcare workers and those caring for immunocompromised patients.[bpac.org.nz]
  • Further, the occurrence of IE impacts patient care, requiring more frequent and longer hospitalizations and treatments.[journals.lww.com]
  • Bacitracin treatment of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile toxin. Gastroenterology 1980;78:1584–6. PubMed Google Scholar 65. Sinatra F, Buntain WL, Mitchell CH, et al.[link.springer.com]

Prognosis

  • Outlook (Prognosis) Symptoms most often go away without treatment in a few days in otherwise healthy people. Possible Complications Dehydration Long-term diarrhea Note: In babies, the diarrhea can cause severe dehydration that comes on very quickly.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • As for prognosis, PI-IBS seems to have a somewhat better outcome than unselected IBS does, but it can still take years to resolve.[medpagetoday.com]

Etiology

  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • . : Etiological agents of infectious diarrhea: implications for requests for microbial culture . J Clin Microbiol 1997, 35 :1427–1432. PubMed Google Scholar 13.[link.springer.com]
  • Etiology infection infective enteritis eosinophilic enteritis ischemia inflammatory bowel disease radiation radiation enteritis lymphoma intramural hemorrhage shocked bowel vasculitides portal hypertension hypoproteinemia sprue scleroderma systemic lupus[radiopaedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • A decision to prescribe empiric antibiotic therapy should rest on clinical or epidemiologic features of the illness that suggest a treatable bacterial origin or a high-risk host.[link.springer.com]
  • Tropical Countries 859 Endemic and Travelers Diarrhea in Tropical Countries 875 Eosinophilia in Travelers to Tropical Countries 881 Infections after Animal Bites and Scratches 885 EctoparasiteRelated Diseases 891 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS 903 Epidemiology[books.google.de]
  • Campylobacter enteritis : clinical and epidemiologic features. Ann Intern Med 1979;91:179–85. PubMed Google Scholar 24. Blaser MJ, Relier LB. Campylobacter enteritis. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1444–52. PubMed Google Scholar 25.[link.springer.com]
  • Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States:analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med; 29: 1303-1310, 2001. 2-Briel M; Christ-Grain M; Young J; Schueta P; Huber P; Periat P; Bucher H. and Muller B.[scla.org.sy]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology of Enteritis Dr. Paul tells Finn that the small intestine is an organ responsible for the absorption of nutrients.[study.com]
  • Clinical and pathophysiologic features of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholera and Eschericia coli. In: Field M, Fordtran JS, Schultz SG, eds. Secretory diarrhea. Bethesda: American Physiological Society, 1980:67–83. Google Scholar 16.[link.springer.com]
  • Fox said she believes that PI-IBS may provide insight into the pathophysiology of IBS in general, because its infective trigger makes it easier to pinpoint cause and effect: "The clear time of onset definitely makes it an attractive model."[medpagetoday.com]
  • Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management, Expert Consult Premium Edition - Enhanced Online Features. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-1437727678. Webber, Roger (2009-01-01).[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Appropriate precautions are mandatory to prevent the spread of infectious diarrhea from occurring in the hospital environment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Food associated illness can be prevented Good food handling and hygiene principles remain the key to prevention.[bpac.org.nz]
  • The best prevention is frequent hand washing. Symptoms of gastroenteritis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, fever and chills. Most people recover with no treatment. The most common problem with gastroenteritis is dehydration.[icdlist.com]
  • Endemic and Travelers Diarrhea in Tropical Countries 875 Eosinophilia in Travelers to Tropical Countries 881 Infections after Animal Bites and Scratches 885 EctoparasiteRelated Diseases 891 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS 903 Epidemiology and Prevention[books.google.de]

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