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Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome

Vena Cava Obstruction Inferior


Presentation

  • The patient initially presented with edema of the face and bilateral lower extremities. Echocardiography revealed a mass within the right atrium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiological data is elusive owing to the wide variety of clinical presentation. In the U.S., incidence is estimated to be at 5–10 cases per 100,000 per year.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • If this involves the inferior vena cava (IVC), patients usually present with signs and symptoms characteristic of congestive heart failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We present the case of a 71-year-old man with inferior vena cava syndrome due to metastatic lymph nodes from hepatocellular carcinoma with serious complications that were strongly suspected to result from rapid changes in hemodynamics after self-expandable[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of recurrent inferior vena cava (IVC) syndrome due to alveolar echinococcosis and strongly suspected on transthoracic echocardiographic examination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Leg Edema
  • The patient's leg edema appeared to improve 10 weeks subsequent to her surgery, she then being able to perambulate using a rigid walker.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In one study, almost 60% of patients did not have bilateral leg edema. In addition, if the thrombus is confined to the cava and does not involve the iliac or femoral system, the collateral pathways form along the posterior abdominal wall.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Amyloidosis
  • It must be considered in the differential diagnosis of ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized amyloidosis, collagen disorders, and malabsorption syndrome as well as many other seemingly unrelated disorders.[annals.org]
Hepatosplenomegaly
  • It must be considered in the differential diagnosis of ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized amyloidosis, collagen disorders, and malabsorption syndrome as well as many other seemingly unrelated disorders.[annals.org]
Vascular Disease
  • You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older.[icdlist.com]
  • Continued Other Vascular Diseases Your circulatory system is made up of the vessels that carry blood to every part of your body. Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system.[webmd.com]
  • disease, 040158, 心血管疾患, シンケッカンシッカン, cardiovascular disease, 023404, 外科術, ゲカジュツ, operative surgery, 045593, 治療法, チリョウホウ, therapy, 040918, 静脈, ジョウミャク, vein, 011359, 血管, ケッカン(ジュンカンキ), blood vessel, 003064, ケッカン, 循環系, ジュンカンケイ, cardiovascular system,[togodb.biosciencedbc.jp]
Muscle Twitch
  • Symptoms of late pregnancy inferior vena cava syndrome consist of intense pain in the right hand side, muscle twitching, hypotension, and fluid retention.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • twitching, drop of blood pressure, and fluid retention. [2] Frequency Epidemiological data is elusive owing to the wide variety of clinical presentation.[ipfs.io]
  • Various symptoms of inferior vena cava syndrome which occur during pregnancy include sudden drop of blood pressure, muscle twitching, signs of hypoxia and extreme distress, and finally fatal pain on the right hand side of your body.[buddchiarisyndrome.org]
Myalgia
  • RESULTS: Just subsequent to surgery, this patient developed dyspnea, arthralgia, myalgia, and progressive right lower-limb pain, redness, and swelling., conservative treatment being then undertaken, albeit in vain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Arthralgia
  • RESULTS: Just subsequent to surgery, this patient developed dyspnea, arthralgia, myalgia, and progressive right lower-limb pain, redness, and swelling., conservative treatment being then undertaken, albeit in vain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Withdrawn
  • Using a right femoral approach, a 290-mm PT Graphix intermediate angioplasty guidewire (Boston Scientific Scimed, Plymouth, Minnesota, USA) was inserted through the Brockenbrough needle and the needle was withdrawn (Figure 1C).[revespcardiol.org]
Vulvar Edema
  • Clinical outcome was assessed from patients' records using a score based on leg swelling, scrotal/vulvar edema, ascites and anasarca before and after stent placement, as well as at last follow-up visit before death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Anterior Mediastinal Mass
  • These tend to be right upper lobe tumours or anterior mediastinal masses that compress the vessel wall.[oncologynurseadvisor.com]

Treatment

  • OBJECTIVES: To update our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of IVC syndrome and to evaluate the efficacy of expandable stents in the treatment of IVC syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: University hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment will vary depending on the cause of the vena cava compression or interruption. Often, treatment includes positional changes, avoidance of supine positioning, especially on the right side.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Vertebroplasty is a less invasive treatment solution for the osteoporotic compression fracture. There complications of the cement leakage would appear to have been rather infrequent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Xu K (1990) Bulloon angioplasty treatment for patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome. (in Japanese) Nippon Acta Radiol 50:1547–1557 PubMed Google Scholar 2.[springerlink.com]
  • Recognition and treatment of this condition will assume greater importance as survival is prolonged in more patients with advanced malignancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Overall, mortality is high in the early phase of the disease but once the acute episode is terminated, prognosis is good.[karger.com]
  • Newborns with 4S NBL have an unfavorable prognosis compared with 3–12 month olds. [2,3]. Congenital NBLs with massive hepatic involvement are extremely rare [4-6]. IVC syndrome is a result of obstruction of the IVC [7].[apspjcaserep.com]
  • The underlying diagnosis influences prognosis. SVCO secondary to lung cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis, with a median survival of six months. Lymphomas and testicular tumours with SVCO are potentially curable.[oncologynurseadvisor.com]
  • Treatment Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome depends on the cause of the obstruction, the seriousness of the symptoms, the prognosis of the patient, and the patient's preferences.[saintlukeshealthsystem.org]

Etiology

  • We suggest that mechanical compression was the only factor that played a role in the etiology. MYC-N amplification is recognized as a strong marker for poor prognosis in NBL at all ages [4]. In our patient there was no MYC-N amplification.[apspjcaserep.com]
  • Treatment for Budd-Chiari syndrome varies according to the etiology and level of the obstruction.[revespcardiol.org]
  • Etiology hypercoagulable states venous stasis compression by neoplastic lesions, lymph nodes, retroperitoneal masses/fibrosis or hemorrhage foreign bodies: vena cava filter, catheters extension from benign tumors: angiomyolipoma, IVC leiomyoma, adrenal[radiopaedia.org]
  • Caval occlusion of malignant etiology is an insidious pathologic entity, resulting in substantial morbidity and limiting quality of life in severely ill and/or terminal patients.[evtoday.com]
  • In patients with iliac or IVC thrombosis, thrombolytics can be of help in delineating the underlying etiology of the occlusion (see Table 30–3 ), which then may be treated.[radiologykey.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological data is elusive owing to the wide variety of clinical presentation. In the U.S., incidence is estimated to be at 5–10 cases per 100,000 per year.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] pregnancy which can cause compression of the inferior vena cava. [1] Symptoms of late pregnancy inferior vena cava syndrome consist of intense pain in the right hand side, muscle twitching, drop of blood pressure, and fluid retention. [2] Frequency Epidemiological[ipfs.io]
  • Frequency Epidemiological data is elusive owing to the wide variety of clinical presentation. In the U.S., incidence is estimated to be at 5–10 cases per 100'000 per year.[wikidoc.org]
  • The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003 Jun 17. 107(23 Suppl 1):I4-8. [Medline]. Ruggeri M, Tosetto A, Castaman G, Rodeghiero F.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology of this syndrome centers on either IVC or hepatic venous thrombosis. If it is at the hepatic venous level, two or three of the major hepatic veins must be occluded before the syndrome can develop.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology 11. Pathophysiology Right lung. Lymph nodes. Mediastinal structures. Thrombosis of blood within SVC. 12. Collateral veins may arise from the azygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, paraspinous, and esophageal venous systems .[slideshare.net]

Prevention

  • Intravenous heparin was then administered to our patient for the ensuing 20 days, at which time heparin was replaced by warfarin, in order to attempt to prevent progressive venous thrombosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment includes anticoagulation to prevent recurrence or extension of thrombosis, nonspecific measures to control ascites and gastrointestinal bleeding, and procedures aiming to restore hepatic blood outflow.[karger.com]
  • Prevention of pulmonary embolism by caval ligation. Ann Surg. 1970;171:923–36. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 11. Hess DS. Limb measurements in duodenal switch (correspondence). Obes Surg. 2003;13:966.[link.springer.com]
  • Preventing Low Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Prevention means trying to avoid the emergence of diseases or certain conditions.[en.medixa.org]
  • Executive summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.[elsevier.pt]

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