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Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome

Vena Cava Obstruction Inferior


Presentation

  • We present a case of an aged male with invasive thymoma that extended into the right atrium and led to superior and inferior vena cava syndrome. The patient initially presented with edema of the face and bilateral lower extremities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If this involves the inferior vena cava (IVC), patients usually present with signs and symptoms characteristic of congestive heart failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Frequency [ edit ] Epidemiological data is elusive owing to the wide variety of clinical presentation. In the U.S., incidence is estimated to be at 5–10 cases per 100,000 per year.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • We present a case of recurrent inferior vena cava (IVC) syndrome due to alveolar echinococcosis and strongly suspected on transthoracic echocardiographic examination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we present the case of a 68-year-old man found to have multiple pulmonary emboli as the first manifestation of inferior vena cava compression from a distended urinary bladder 5 L in capacity.[scholars.northwestern.edu]
Amyloidosis
  • It must be considered in the differential diagnosis of ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized amyloidosis, collagen disorders, and malabsorption syndrome as well as many other seemingly unrelated disorders.[annals.org]
Vascular Disease
  • You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older.[icdlist.com]
  • Continued Other Vascular Diseases Your circulatory system is made up of the vessels that carry blood to every part of your body. Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system.[webmd.com]
  • VASCULAR DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2012;9(3):E33–E38 ____________________________________________ Until recently, treatment of lower extremity venous insufficiency and post-thrombotic syndrome focused on compression therapy and surgical interventions such as[vasculardiseasemanagement.com]
Vulvar Edema
  • Clinical outcome was assessed from patients' records using a score based on leg swelling, scrotal/vulvar edema, ascites and anasarca before and after stent placement, as well as at last follow-up visit before death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • All patients with chronic iliocaval obstruction due to thrombus should undergo medical workup for hypercoagulability including antithrombin 3, protein C and S deficiencies, anticardiolipin antibody, lupus anticoagulant, prothrombin, MTHFR, and factor[vasculardiseasemanagement.com]
  • US, CECT, MRV, and invasive venography are all modalities at our disposal for further workup and characterization.[cdt.amegroups.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment [ edit ] Treatment will vary depending on the cause of the vena cava compression or interruption. Often, treatment includes positional changes, avoidance of supine positioning, especially on the right side.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • To update our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of IVC syndrome and to evaluate the efficacy of expandable stents in the treatment of IVC syndrome. Retrospective review. University hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Vertebroplasty is a less invasive treatment solution for the osteoporotic compression fracture. There complications of the cement leakage would appear to have been rather infrequent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment Treatment of children with inferior vena cava obstruction syndrome Departments: Surgical Vascular Surgery Treatment: Drug treatment Rehabilitation treatment supportive treatment Treatment cycle: 2-3 months Cure rate: surgical cure rate of about[healthfrom.com]
  • Jugular vein access may be used for treatment of IVC lesions, but evaluation and treatment of distal disease is also more difficult from this approach.[vasculardiseasemanagement.com]

Prognosis

  • Overall, mortality is high in the early phase of the disease but once the acute episode is terminated, prognosis is good.[karger.com]
  • Newborns with 4S NBL have an unfavorable prognosis compared with 3–12 month olds. [2,3]. Congenital NBLs with massive hepatic involvement are extremely rare [4-6]. IVC syndrome is a result of obstruction of the IVC [7].[apspjcaserep.com]
  • (B) prognosis Complications have a prognosis.[healthfrom.com]
  • The underlying diagnosis influences prognosis. SVCO secondary to lung cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis, with a median survival of six months. Lymphomas and testicular tumours with SVCO are potentially curable.[oncologynurseadvisor.com]
  • What is the prognosis for superior vena cava syndrome? The outcome and prognosis is dependent upon the underlying cause of the superior vena cava syndrome. From References Medically reviewed by Robert J.[medicinenet.com]

Etiology

  • We suggest that mechanical compression was the only factor that played a role in the etiology. MYC-N amplification is recognized as a strong marker for poor prognosis in NBL at all ages [4]. In our patient there was no MYC-N amplification.[apspjcaserep.com]
  • Treatment for Budd-Chiari syndrome varies according to the etiology and level of the obstruction.[revespcardiol.org]
  • Introduction Etiology Prevention Complication Symptom Examine Diagnosis Treatment Basic Nursing Introduction Brief introduction of pediatric inferior vena cava obstruction syndrome Inferior vena cava obstruction syndrome (inferior vena venous obstruction[healthfrom.com]
  • On presentation, patients should be evaluated on the Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomical, and Pathophysiological (CEAP) classification system 15,16 to grade the severity of CVD.[vasculardiseasemanagement.com]
  • Both hypercoagulable states and membranous venous webs have been postulated as the etiologic agents of Budd-Chiari syndrome. Anderson FAJr, Wheeler HB, Goldberg RJ.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Frequency [ edit ] Epidemiological data is elusive owing to the wide variety of clinical presentation. In the U.S., incidence is estimated to be at 5–10 cases per 100,000 per year.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] pregnancy which can cause compression of the inferior vena cava. [1] Symptoms of late pregnancy inferior vena cava syndrome consist of intense pain in the right hand side, muscle twitching, drop of blood pressure, and fluid retention. [2] Frequency Epidemiological[ipfs.io]
  • Frequency Epidemiological data is elusive owing to the wide variety of clinical presentation. In the U.S., incidence is estimated to be at 5–10 cases per 100'000 per year.[wikidoc.org]
  • The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation . 2003 Jun 17. 107(23 Suppl 1):I4-8. [Medline] . Ruggeri M, Tosetto A, Castaman G, Rodeghiero F.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology of this syndrome centers on either IVC or hepatic venous thrombosis. If it is at the hepatic venous level, two or three of the major hepatic veins must be occluded before the syndrome can develop.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology Blood that is low in oxygen (deoxygenated blood) returns to the right side from the heart through the vena cavae : Superior vena cava (SVC) returns blood from the head, neck, upper limbs and upper thorax (chest).[healthhype.com]
  • Pathophysiology 11. Pathophysiology Right lung. Lymph nodes. Mediastinal structures. Thrombosis of blood within SVC. 12. Collateral veins may arise from the azygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, paraspinous, and esophageal venous systems .[slideshare.net]
  • On presentation, patients should be evaluated on the Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomical, and Pathophysiological (CEAP) classification system 15,16 to grade the severity of CVD.[vasculardiseasemanagement.com]

Prevention

  • Intravenous heparin was then administered to our patient for the ensuing 20 days, at which time heparin was replaced by warfarin, in order to attempt to prevent progressive venous thrombosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.[circ.ahajournals.org]
  • Prevention Prevention of children 's inferior vena cava obstruction syndrome For dehydration, polycythemia, blood coagulation enhancement of patients, should be actively treated to prevent the occurrence of this disease.[healthfrom.com]
  • Treatment includes anticoagulation to prevent recurrence or extension of thrombosis, nonspecific measures to control ascites and gastrointestinal bleeding, and procedures aiming to restore hepatic blood outflow.[karger.com]
  • Prevention of pulmonary embolism by caval ligation. Ann Surg. 1970;171:923–36. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 11. Hess DS. Limb measurements in duodenal switch (correspondence). Obes Surg. 2003;13:966.[link.springer.com]

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