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Inhalant Abuse


Presentation

  • So what do you do when these patient’s present? Treatment is supportive. Avoid further exposure to the toxin. Keep them in a calm environment since increased catecholamine release can be dangerous.[epmonthly.com]
  • The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic
  • Disposition: -Ok to go home with good follow-up if the patient is asymptomatic or has mild sleepiness that clears, good follow-up and a negative medical evaluation and psychiatric screening.[epmonthly.com]
Anemia
  • Hydrocarbons can result in bone marrow toxicity (causing aplastic anemia and leukemia) ( 23 ), while volatile nitrites have been implicated in immune impairment and the replication of HIV and Kaposi’s sarcoma, and the creation of carcinogenic nitrosamine[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypothermia
  • Deaths and injuries from acute abuse often result from dangerous behaviour (eg, drowning, falls or jumps, burns or hypothermia) due to disinhibition and feelings of invincibility, while aspiration and suffocation, especially when ‘bagging’, can also be[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Loss
  • Friends and family may suspect heavy abuse by noticing poor hygiene, weight loss, fatigue, nosebleeds, conjunctivitis, muscle weakness, nausea, apathy, poor appetite and gastrointestinal complaints, changes in school attendance or psychological/psychiatric[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Physician
  • Am Family Physician. 2003; 68 :869–74. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 29. Broussard LA. The role of the laboratory in detecting inhalant abuse. Clin Lab Sci. 2000; 13 :205–9. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 30. Dias PJ. Adolescent substance abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • Inhalant abuse leads to intense short-term effects, including the following: Slurred speech Coordination problems Cognitive distortion Disorientation and confusion Dizziness Lightheadedness Nausea The effects of inhalant abuse are usually felt within[crchealth.com]
  • Nausea. Vomiting. Hallucinations. Ocular and nasal secretions. Tachycardia. Depressed mood. Anxiety. Severe cravings. Insomnia.[mentalhelp.net]
  • It can cause nausea and vomiting, as well as eye, nose and throat irritation. Exposure can cause frostbite to tissue. A contact dermatitis known as “glue sniffer’s rash” can produce redness, inflammation and itching around the nose and mouth.[epmonthly.com]
  • Withdrawal may influence treatment; varying manifestations have been reported, such as nausea, anorexia, sweating, tics, sleep disturbance and significant changes to mood ( 13, 28, 36 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • Right now, it’s your resident who is exhibiting anxiety and tachycardia. Time to sit down and review hydrocarbon inhalation. ADVERTISEMENT Inhalant abuse is common in the United States.[epmonthly.com]
  • Tachycardia. Depressed mood. Anxiety. Severe cravings. Insomnia. The severity of these symptoms can depend on the amount of inhalant last used, or the level of physiological tolerance a user has acquired.[mentalhelp.net]
Hypotension
  • Hypotension is common and cardio-pulmonary status must be monitored, along with mental status ( 11, 35 ). Skin and clothing may require decontamination ( 35 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Muscle Weakness
  • Friends and family may suspect heavy abuse by noticing poor hygiene, weight loss, fatigue, nosebleeds, conjunctivitis, muscle weakness, nausea, apathy, poor appetite and gastrointestinal complaints, changes in school attendance or psychological/psychiatric[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dermatitis
  • A contact dermatitis known as “glue sniffer’s rash” can produce redness, inflammation and itching around the nose and mouth. Halogenated hydrocarbons can cause liver and renal damage.[epmonthly.com]
Flushing
  • Volatile alkyl nitrites, such as those indicated for angina, have vasodilatory effects, resulting in hypotension and syncope and sensations of warmth and flushing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Low Self-Esteem
  • Inhalant abuse is associated with poor school performance, criminal behaviour, abuse of other substances, social maladjustment, low self-esteem and suicidality ( 1, 4 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aggressive Behavior
  • The user with an acute exposure may come in with ataxia, slurred speech, altered mental status, headache, agitation, hallucinations, or aggressive behavior. More severe symptoms include seizures and CNS depression.[epmonthly.com]
Delusion
  • Possible hallucinations/delusions. Nausea and vomiting. Increased risk for stunted development in fetuses if used by pregnant women. Possible tissue damage to the areas that the inhalants come in touch with, such as nasal scarring and mouth sores.[mentalhelp.net]
Headache
  • The user with an acute exposure may come in with ataxia, slurred speech, altered mental status, headache, agitation, hallucinations, or aggressive behavior. More severe symptoms include seizures and CNS depression.[epmonthly.com]
  • These symptoms have been reported to include: Headaches. Nausea. Vomiting. Hallucinations. Ocular and nasal secretions. Tachycardia. Depressed mood. Anxiety. Severe cravings. Insomnia.[mentalhelp.net]
  • Further drowsiness and headache can persist for hours because of residual intoxication. Tiredness and sleep often limit the degree of intoxication ( 13 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Apathy
  • Friends and family may suspect heavy abuse by noticing poor hygiene, weight loss, fatigue, nosebleeds, conjunctivitis, muscle weakness, nausea, apathy, poor appetite and gastrointestinal complaints, changes in school attendance or psychological/psychiatric[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Disturbed Gait
  • These sensations may be followed by hallucinations and then a general depression including slurred speech and disturbed gait, dizziness, disorientation, and drowsiness or sleep within seconds to minutes ( 13 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neglect
  • Inhalant abuse is more common in school dropouts, those who have been physically or sexually abused or neglected, the incarcerated and the homeless, as well as among Aboriginal communities ( 1, 7, 8 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sleep Disturbance
  • Withdrawal may influence treatment; varying manifestations have been reported, such as nausea, anorexia, sweating, tics, sleep disturbance and significant changes to mood ( 13, 28, 36 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Hypercapnia
  • Rebreathing when ‘bagging’ potentiates the intoxication by causing hypercapnia and hypoxia ( 15 ). Further drowsiness and headache can persist for hours because of residual intoxication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Treatment for young people who have been involved in inhalant abuse may be done on an outpatient, residential, or partial hospitalization basis.[crchealth.com]
  • […] its treatment and prevention efforts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Substance abuse treatment facilities exist to help with such problems. Call our confidential line at 1-888-993-3112 Who Answers? to speak with a compassionate and understanding support specialist about inhalant treatment options.[mentalhelp.net]
  • Are there any antidotes or treatment strategies I should know? The charge nurse described the kid as calm and cooperative. You review the vital signs, which are normal for his age.[epmonthly.com]

Epidemiology

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY Lack of recognition, social stigma, changing trends and apparent regional differences, along with differences in survey methods, make accurate reporting of inhalant abuse epidemiology difficult.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Psychiatric disorders in inhalant users: Results from The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88, pp. 146-155. 3. Perron, B. E., Howard, M. O., Vaughn, M. G., & Jarman, C. N. (2009).[mentalhelp.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • […] its treatment and prevention efforts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment for inhalant abuse or addiction may include the following therapies and techniques: Individual therapy Group therapy Family therapy 12-Step education Relapse-prevention instruction Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Dialectical Behavioral Therapy[crchealth.com]
  • Inhalant Prevention Resource Guide (PDF). VA Dpt Ed (2nd ed.). The Health Network. Chier, Ruth (2003) [1997]. Danger: Inhalants. The Drug Awareness Library. Powerkids Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780823923403. Lobo, Ingrid A. (2004). Inhalants.[en.wikipedia.org]

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