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Inhalation of Phosgene Gas

Phosgene Exposure


Presentation

  • If cyanosis is present, shower with soap and warm water, with special attention to scalp and fingernails; ‏[books.google.com]
  • Mercury is present in many pesticides and pickling baths. In the environment, it may accumulate in fish. Mercury poisoning has serious effects on the nervous system. Nickel is present with other metals in various alloys.[ilo.org]
  • Responsible for upwards of 85 percent of all deaths caused by chemical warfare in World War One, phosgene gas also happens to be a byproduct generated when brazing certain metals, and can also become present when testing for leaks using an antiquated[hvacschool.org]
Pain
  • Stay on top of the latest procedures and treatment guidelines with updated coverage of 184 topics, including Swimmer’s Ear, Dental Pain, Broken Rib, Locked Knee, Puncture Wounds, and Sunburn. Get procedural sedation recommendations from Dr.[books.google.com]
  • (see Chest Pain, [[Chest Pain]]) Carboxyhemoglobinemia (see Carboxyhemoglobinemia, [[Carboxyhemoglobinemia]]) Physiology: related to exposure levels of CO Diagnosis ABG Co-Oximetry: carboxyhemoglobinemia Prognosis: there is no linear relationship between[mdnxs.com]
  • These gases caused pain in the chest as well as pain in the eyes and nose. They could also cause choking, nausea, vomiting, coughing and sneezing. Lachrymator, or tear gas. Tear gas caused irritation to soldiers’ throats and eyes.[warhistoryonline.com]
  • Its effects are delayed, though, because it causes no pain on contact. There is no antidote to mustard poisoning.[webmd.com]
  • Frequent and painful coughing occurs and some frothy sputum is brought up.[vlib.us]
Falling
  • If the shell should explode over the heads of the enemy, the gas would, by its great specific gravity, rapidly fall to the ground: the men could not dodge it, and their first intimation of its presence would be by its inhalation, which... ‏[books.google.com]
  • If the shell should explode over the heads of the enemy, the gas would, by its great specific gravity, rapidly fall to the ground: the men could not dodge it, and their first intimation of its presence would be by its inhalation, which... ‎[books.google.de]
  • Extreme cyanosis with a full pulse is greatly relieved by bleeding: breathing becomes easier, headache is relieved, and the patient falls into a refreshing sleep.[vlib.us]
  • These fall into “Schedule 3.” Some have a few useful applications but are primarily weapons. These are “Schedule 2.”[theraptorlab.wordpress.com]
Physician
  • Hazards of Combustion Products: Not pertinent; Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than fire and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back; Ignition Temperature ‏ الصفحة 156 - Exposure: Remove victim to fresh air and call a physician[books.google.com]
  • During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, for example, Bosnian Muslim forces employed 120-millimeter, chlorine-laden mortar rounds against Serbian combatants on at least 3 separate occasions in 1993. 6 Phosgene: British physician and chemist John Davy[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • Note: Those members who have health concerns need to have them addressed by a licensed physician, treated and cleared before returning to duty. Doing all of these things could mean saving a life—your own—and ensuring that everyone goes home.[firefighternation.com]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • heart failure Blindness,Glaucoma Diagnosis Immediate diagnosis of lung poisoning is difficult, given the relative nonspecificity of the symptoms associated with choking agent exposure.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
Fatigue
  • High levels can cause fatigue, irritability and dizziness. Prolonged contact can blister and burn the skin.[pbs.org]
Cough
  • Chronic exposure damages the lungs; repeated exposure can lead to bronchitis with coughing or shortness of breath.[pbs.org]
  • Chlorine gas often caused victims to cough and choke violently; phosgene, by contrast, caused much less coughing, resulting in increased gas inhalation. 2 Military forces even formulated a "white star" concoction consisting of a phosgene-chlorine mix,[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • Typical symptoms include wheezing, coughing, tightness in the chest and shortness of breath.[app.croneri.co.uk]
  • At lower concentrations, it can cause coughing, vomiting, and irritation to the eyes. In its first uses, chlorine was deadly.[compoundchem.com]
  • […] develops respiratory distress within 4 hours of exposure has probably inhaled an LD50 and is at severe risk if not properly supported Signs and symptoms of toxicity may be delayed, although rare, for 24 to 72 hours and include choking, chest tightness, cough[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspnea
  • Vesicant toxicity severe enough to cause dyspnea typically causes airway necrosis often with upper airway obstruction.[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] electron transport chain - inducing anaerobic metabolism Carboxyhemoglobinemia: causes 80% of smoke-inahlation-related deaths Direct Bronchial Mucosal Toxicity Formaldehyde/Chlorine/Phosgene Gas/Nitrogen Dioxide: produce cough/bronchorrhea/wheezing/dyspnea[mdnxs.com]
  • Acute inhalation may cause respiratory and circulatory failure with symptoms of chills, dizziness, thirst, burning of eyes,cough, viscous sputum, dyspnea, feeling of suffocation, tracheal rhonchi, burning in throat, vomiting, pain in chest and cyanosis[ruf.rice.edu]
  • Acute exposure to HCN can result in symptoms such as weakness, headache, confusion, vertigo, dyspnea and, occasionally, nausea and vomiting.[firefighternation.com]
  • Cough, dyspnea (shortness of breath), pain in the chest, and severe pulmonary edema may also occur. Cyanosis (blue tint to the skin and mucous membranes) and anxiety may be observed.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
Painful Cough
  • Frequent and painful coughing occurs and some frothy sputum is brought up.[vlib.us]
Choking
  • […] it was illogical, and not demonstrably humane, to be tender about asphyxiating men with gas, when all were prepared to admit that it was allowable to blow the bottom out of an ironclad at midnight, throwing four or five hundred men into the sea to be choked[books.google.com]
  • […] symptoms. 16 Treatment There is no antidote against any of the choking agents.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • It is a choking agent that irritates the eyes , nose, and respiratory tract. Symptoms of chlorine poisoning appear as runny nose , coughing , choking, and chest pain . Fluid buildup in the lungs occurs several hours after exposure.[webmd.com]
  • […] phosgene casualty who develops respiratory distress within 4 hours of exposure has probably inhaled an LD50 and is at severe risk if not properly supported Signs and symptoms of toxicity may be delayed, although rare, for 24 to 72 hours and include choking[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The gas attacked the lungs, and would cause initial symptoms of coughing, sneezing, vomiting and choking. While phosgene could be used by itself, it was often mixed with chlorine. The gas was largely odorless and didn’t produce a cloud.[warhistoryonline.com]
Choking
  • […] it was illogical, and not demonstrably humane, to be tender about asphyxiating men with gas, when all were prepared to admit that it was allowable to blow the bottom out of an ironclad at midnight, throwing four or five hundred men into the sea to be choked[books.google.com]
  • […] symptoms. 16 Treatment There is no antidote against any of the choking agents.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • It is a choking agent that irritates the eyes , nose, and respiratory tract. Symptoms of chlorine poisoning appear as runny nose , coughing , choking, and chest pain . Fluid buildup in the lungs occurs several hours after exposure.[webmd.com]
  • […] phosgene casualty who develops respiratory distress within 4 hours of exposure has probably inhaled an LD50 and is at severe risk if not properly supported Signs and symptoms of toxicity may be delayed, although rare, for 24 to 72 hours and include choking[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The gas attacked the lungs, and would cause initial symptoms of coughing, sneezing, vomiting and choking. While phosgene could be used by itself, it was often mixed with chlorine. The gas was largely odorless and didn’t produce a cloud.[warhistoryonline.com]
Gagging
  • We would blow the charge and un-sweat the compresor. 9 times out of 10 you would get a face full of phosgene and gag the hell out of ya. Normal hazzard of the job then with a cancer stick in my mouth. If I only knew then what I know now........[hvac-talk.com]
Cyanosis
  • If cyanosis is present, shower with soap and warm water, with special attention to scalp and fingernails; ‏[books.google.com]
  • Of interest is the treatment of cyanosis by bleeding.[vlib.us]
  • […] asphyxiation Dermatitis, discoloration, blisters, burning sensation, chemical burns Slow heart rate, low blood pressure Blurred vision, burning sensation, excessive tear formation Long-term Effects Respiratory failure, chronic bronchitis, emphysema Cyanosis[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • If a firefighter gets to the point where they lose color and become ashen, or cyanosis is present, it usually means that respirations have ceased or have been inadequate for an extended amount of time.[firefighternation.com]
  • Acute inhalation may cause respiratory and circulatory failure with symptoms of chills, dizziness, thirst, burning of eyes,cough, viscous sputum, dyspnea, feeling of suffocation, tracheal rhonchi, burning in throat, vomiting, pain in chest and cyanosis[ruf.rice.edu]
Cyanosis
  • If cyanosis is present, shower with soap and warm water, with special attention to scalp and fingernails; ‏[books.google.com]
  • Of interest is the treatment of cyanosis by bleeding.[vlib.us]
  • […] asphyxiation Dermatitis, discoloration, blisters, burning sensation, chemical burns Slow heart rate, low blood pressure Blurred vision, burning sensation, excessive tear formation Long-term Effects Respiratory failure, chronic bronchitis, emphysema Cyanosis[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • If a firefighter gets to the point where they lose color and become ashen, or cyanosis is present, it usually means that respirations have ceased or have been inadequate for an extended amount of time.[firefighternation.com]
  • Acute inhalation may cause respiratory and circulatory failure with symptoms of chills, dizziness, thirst, burning of eyes,cough, viscous sputum, dyspnea, feeling of suffocation, tracheal rhonchi, burning in throat, vomiting, pain in chest and cyanosis[ruf.rice.edu]
Flushing
  • SKIN OR EYES: immediately flush skin or eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 mm. If cyanosis is present, shower with soap and warm water, with special attention to scalp and fingernails; ‏[books.google.com]
  • Eyes and skin should be flushed thoroughly if exposed.[webmd.com]
  • Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with water for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention immediately.[baylor.edu]
  • If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes. 5. Wash exposed skin areas THOROUGHLY with soap and water. 6.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
Blepharospasm
  • Link to PPE, rescuer safety hospital management section Link to reference section for acute event PPE related safety information Immediate irritant effects such as conjunctivitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, lacrimation, blepharospasm conjunctival[chemm.nlm.nih.gov]
Headache
  • Symptoms include visual problems, headache , runny nose and nasal congestion, salivation, tightness of chest, nausea and vomiting, anxiety , confusion, involuntary muscle movements, and involuntary bowel movement and urination.[webmd.com]
  • Acute exposure can severely irritate the eyes, skin, and nose, and can cause headaches, nausea, dizziness, unconsciousness, and death.[pbs.org]
  • Inhalation may cause headache, delirium, nausea, vomiting, general malaise, tightness in the chest and pain in the abdomen or loins. Arsine does not have adequate warning properties to avoid overexposure.[ruf.rice.edu]
  • Headache, vertigo and dyspepsia may continue for several weeks. Prognosis . Nothing is known as to the proportion of men who die from "gassing" on the field.[vlib.us]
  • Very low concentrations (e.g., one part per million) cause headaches and dryness of the eyes. Chronic effects include significant changes in lung function.[ccohs.ca]

Treatment

  • RCRA defines a solid waste as:. .. any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material[books.google.com]
  • There are no guidelines regarding the treatment of phosgene poisoning during pregnancy. Owing to the severity of complications associated with phosgene poisoning, treatment of the pregnant patient should be the same as for the non-pregnant patient.[medicinesinpregnancy.org]
  • Stay on top of the latest procedures and treatment guidelines with updated coverage of 184 topics, including Swimmer’s Ear, Dental Pain, Broken Rib, Locked Knee, Puncture Wounds, and Sunburn. Get procedural sedation recommendations from Dr.[books.google.com]
  • 2.0 atm decreases COHb half-life to approximately 20 min However, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is controversial and is not recommended for COHb Treatment of Cyanide Toxicity (if suspected) Treatment utilizies induction of methemoglobinemia - use of sulfur[mdnxs.com]
  • Treatment with the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine aerosol by inhalation reduced the severity of phosgene-induced ALI when applied at low dose-rates. Symptomatic treatment regimens were considered inferior to causal modes of treatment.[unboundmedicine.com]

Prognosis

  • Seizures (see Seizures, [[Seizures]]) Chest Pain (see Chest Pain, [[Chest Pain]]) Carboxyhemoglobinemia (see Carboxyhemoglobinemia, [[Carboxyhemoglobinemia]]) Physiology: related to exposure levels of CO Diagnosis ABG Co-Oximetry: carboxyhemoglobinemia Prognosis[mdnxs.com]
  • Chapter X describes the effects of chlorine gas poisoning, the patient's symptoms, prognosis and the treatment advocated in 1916. Of interest is the treatment of cyanosis by bleeding.[vlib.us]

Epidemiology

  • […] relationship between COHb level and the long-term neurologic outcome Methemoglobinemia (see Methemoglobinemia, [[Methemoglobinemia]]) Physiology: related to exposure to oxidants Acute Bronchospasm (see Obstructive Lung Disease, [[Obstructive Lung Disease]]) Epidemiology[mdnxs.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Every necessary precaution has been taken to prevent its being communicated to this army ; and the General Court will take care, that it does not spread through the country.[books.google.com]
  • It is also produced in the presence of refrigerants that are drawn through a heat source, refrigeration technicians should take extreme caution and prevent the exposure by making sure that smoking is avoided in the presence of refrigerants and preventing[c-f-c.com]
  • Preventive action To prevent or minimise respiratory problems at work, lab managers should have a respiratory protection management programme in place. The programme should cover the following. Risk assessment.[app.croneri.co.uk]
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emergency Preparedness and Response website. April 12, 2013. . Accessed February 26, 2014. Facts about chlorine.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • (ERG, 2016) Protective Clothing Skin: If chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. Eyes: If chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]

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