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Interferon Alpha


Presentation

  • Recent comparisons of recombinant protein-based dendritic cell (DC) targeting vaccines revealed differences in cross-presentation and identified CD40 as a potent human DC receptor target for antigen cross-presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A total of 43 pregnant women with ET were ultimately identified from 12 articles and the present cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B diagnosis who developed type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis during treatment with interferon alfa-2b.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Intralesional interferon at first presentation may be used for immunoreduction prior to definitive surgical management. This may improve surgical and long-term outcomes, improve patient experience, and help meet cancer treatment targets.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a 38-year-old woman who has been treated with combined pegylated interferon alpha (INF-α) and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Euthyroid
  • Herein, we present a case with a rare clinical table such as thyrotoxicosis observed following IFN-α therapy in a patient with euthyroid nodular thyroid without autoimmune thyroiditis findings and the use of therapeutic apheresis method for the treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The current classification divides interferon induced thyroid diseases (IITD) into two groups: autoimmune (Hashimoto disease, Graves disease, positive antithyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid patients) and non-autoimmune (destructive thyroiditis, non-autoimmune[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • One year later the patient was euthyroid and required no further treatment. Our report suggests that: 1. Radioiodine therapy might be an effective and safe method of treatment in cases of IIH with mild GO. 2.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She subsequently received levothyroxine for 4 months only and had remained euthyroid for the last 3 months without any treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hunting
  • Rodero MP 1 , Decalf J 2, 3 , Bondet V 2, 3 , Hunt D 4, 5 , Rice GI 6 , Werneke S 2, 3 , McGlasson SL 4, 5 , Alyanakian MA 7 , Bader-Meunier B 8, 9 , Barnerias C 10 , Bellon N 11 , Belot A 12 , Bodemer C 13, 11 , Briggs TA 6, 14 , Desguerre I 10 , Frémond[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Balanced against its beneficial role in antiviral protection, nonphysiological exposure to IFN can have major detrimental effects ( Hunt et al., 2014 ).[jem.rupress.org]
Productive Cough
  • A 22-year-old Caucasian woman, diagnosed with CAEBV 1.5 years earlier, was admitted to the Immunology Clinic due to a 4-week history of productive cough, fever and general weakness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Cramps
  • A 52-year-old lady presented with a history of occasional, severe abdominal cramps, postprandial diarrhoea and weight loss. After routine gastrointestinal investigations, she was diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Alopecia
  • Skin: Mild pruritus, mild alopecia, rash, dry skin, herpetic eruptions, nonherpetic cold sores, urticaria.[robholland.com]
  • Granulocytopenia 9 23 25 Erythema 22.2 22.5 15.3 Dizziness 25 22 24 Cough 14 22 17 Dyspepsia 22 20 18 Anxiety 15 19 18 Thrombocytopenia 11 18 16 Sinusitis 15 17 22 Influenza like 22.6 15 11 Leukopenia 7 14 12 Pain neck 10 14 12 Pain skeletal 13 14 14 Alopecia[hepatitiscentral.com]
  • Other adverse effects include neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, fatigue, headache, irritability, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, edema, tachycardia, chest pain, flushing, diaphoresis, proteinuria and alopecia.[antimicrobe.org]
  • Other common adverse events in the PEG-Intron/REBETOL group included myalgia (56%), arthralgia (34%) nausea (43%), anorexia (32%), weight loss (29%), alopecia (36%), and pruritus (29%).[accessdata.fda.gov]
  • Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and urticaria have also been reported during postmarketing experience. [ Ref ] Very common (10% or more): Alopecia (up to 38%), rash (up to 25%), increased sweating (up to 21%)[drugs.com]
Suicidal Ideation
  • ideation have been reported - W/prolonged therapy: serious toxicity - immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity may be observed interferon alfa-2b Contraindications - hypersensitivity to interferons - autoimmune hepatitis - hepatic decompensation[quizlet.com]
  • Severe depression may occur and suicidal ideation is well described.[hepatitiscentral.com]
  • Black Box Warnings Alfa interferons cause or aggravate fatal or life-threatening neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, ischemic, and infectious disorders The risk of serious depression, with suicidal ideation and completed suicides, and other serious neuropsychiatric[reference.medscape.com]
  • Hepatic Impairment: No dose adjustment necessary Contraindications/Warnings/ Precautions: Depression and suicidal behavior including suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and suicides have been reported in association with alfa interferons.[antimicrobe.org]
Akathisia
  • Seizures have been recorded in 1.3 percent of patients. (9) There are isolated reports of extrapyramidal syndromes with ataxia and akathisia.[hepatitiscentral.com]

Workup

  • PV diagnosis workup included red cell mass measurement (performed in all cases), exclusion of secondary causes, spleen size assessment (clinically and by ultrasound, performed in all cases), serum erythropoietin (Epo) level measurement (performed in 37[bloodjournal.org]
Decreased Platelet Count
  • IFN-alpha therapy decreased platelet counts to normal levels at birth in many cases, and there were no adverse events that required the discontinuation of IFN-alpha treatment. Overall, 93% of pregnant women with ET gave birth to healthy babies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • platelet count (up to 15%), leukopenia Common (1% to 10%): Thrombocytopenia, bleeding, lymphadenopathy, lymphopenia Very rare (less than 0.01%): Aplastic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, hemolytic anemia, coagulation disorder, splenomegaly Frequency not[drugs.com]

Treatment

  • OBJECTIVE: In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is an effective treatment with disease-modifying properties but currently with no clear predictors of treatment outcome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, follow-up with thyroid function tests should be performed prior to and during the treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To date, no data are available regarding the efficacy and tolerability of concomitant interferon treatment and antineoplastic chemotherapy in the setting of acute hepatitis C treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have advanced rapidly in the last decade.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 39.60   9.21 years, and the median treatment duration was 6 months. Four of the 5 patients (80%) presented with responses to IFNα2a without any uveitis attack during the treatment period.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a very aggressive T cell malignancy that carries a poor prognosis, primarily due to its resistance to chemotherapy and to life-threatening infectious complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although SSPE is a progressive disease of the neuronal system, and typically leads to death in approximately 2-3 years, the neurological prognosis of our case was good.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Natural course and prognosis of essential thrombocythemia is not adversely affected by pregnancy. In these women, the pregnancy should be planned only after normalization of platelet count.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This latter group of patients may have a poor prognosis and less chance of responding to interferon alfa-2b therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Urinalysis before each cycle MRI of the brain before cycles 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and every other month; patients may also have proton magnetic spectroscopic imaging performed at the time of the MRI Background: Children with diffuse pontine gliomas have a dismal prognosis[clinicaltrials.gov]

Etiology

  • They are implicated in the etiology and progression of many diseases, and also used as therapeutic agents for viral and oncologic disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family and is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease (IBD) that affects domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We excluded a viral or bacterial (including tuberculosis) etiology of pericarditis. Conclusions We consider that in a patient receiving interferon, pericarditis must be evoked if the patient accuses sudden chest pain.[bmcgastroenterol.biomedcentral.com]
  • The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and squamus neoplasia of the uterine cervix treated with interferon alpha may explain the effectiveness of INF alpha in CIN, because HPV is suspected as an etiologic agent [ 2 ], [ 5 ], [ 45 ].[em-consulte.com]
  • […] corneal surface and occasionally invade into the globe, orbit, and nasolacrimal system. 1 - 5 In a survey on 1643 conjunctival tumors from an ocular oncology tertiary care center, 179 tumors (11%) were classified under the category of OSSN. 6 The proposed etiologic[jamanetwork.com]

Epidemiology

  • Previous epidemiological data seem to be underestimated. Important risk factors for IITD development are: female sex, elevated serum TSH concentration ( 2.5 μU/mL), positive TPO-Ab and increased blood velocity in thyroid arteries.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York USA[link.springer.com]
  • Database (HGMD) IFNA2 SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for IFNA2 - elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards Relevant External Links for IFNA2 Genetic Association Database (GAD) IFNA2 Human Genome Epidemiology[genecards.org]
  • Depression, disability days and days lost from work in a prospective epidemiologic survey. JAMA 1990 ; 264 : 2524–8. 27 Howarth, E, Johnson, J, Klerman, GL, Weissmann, MM.[bjp.rcpsych.org]
  • O'Brien is at the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.[nature.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Despite substantial advances in the research exploring the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review addresses the toxicity profile of IFN-alpha, the presumed pathophysiology of the different side effects and the strategies to handle these. METHODS: Computerized searches were used and cross-references of articles and books were checked.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition to its role in pathophysiology and diagnosis, 1, 2 the constitutively active JAK2V617F mutation 3 – 6 may be a prognostic marker because the percentage of circulating mutated alleles (%V617F) appears to be significantly higher in patients[bloodjournal.org]
  • In addition to its role in pathophysiology and diagnosis, 1 , 2 the constitutively active JAK2V617F mutation 3 – 6 may be a prognostic marker because the percentage of circulating mutated alleles (%V617F) appears to be significantly higher in patients[bloodjournal.org]

Prevention

  • Pretreatment of both human islets and EndoC-βH1 cells with chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutyric acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid completely prevented IFNα effects, indicating an ER stress-mediated impairment of insulin production.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] glutathione peroxidase and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly higher in group 2 when compared to the control group (P INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study showed that in addition to the standard primary approaches to prevent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The inflammation and the diabetes were prevented with a neutralizing antibody to the interferon-alpha.[science.sciencemag.org]
  • They can prescribe medicines to prevent or treat mouth infections and reduce soreness. Changes to your skin Your skin may become dry or itchy. Tell your doctor or nurse about any skin changes.[macmillan.org.uk]

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