Clinical history of intertrigo starts as an insidious onset of burning, itching and stinging sensation on the intertrigionus areas of the body. In temperate regions, intertrigo may be seasonal occurring in seasons with high humid heat like the summers. The physical appearance of the Intertrigo is highly dependent on the stage where it is brought to medical attention.
Fungal infections may cause chaffing, crusting and lichenification of the affected skin. Foot intertrigo may present with crusting or chafing lesions in between toes may be easily confused with Tinea pedis and eczematous dermatitis which are not responsive to anti-fungal therapy .
Entire Body System
(EIB and toe web candidiasis) Special applicators may be recommended for drying the inter-toe spaces in interdigital candidiasis (EIB and toe web candidiasis).9 Also, triggering factors should be avoided. [dovepress.com]
Terbinafine is not effective in treating candidiasis. [dermatologyadvisor.com]
[…] may complicate intertrigo KOH preparation and Wood light to rule out Candida, tinea, and erythrasma Differential diagnosis Candidiasis Tinea cruris (jock itch) Psoriasis of body folds ("inverse psoriasis") Erythrasma Cellulitis Seborrheic dermatitis [accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
Rich clinical experiences indicate that toe web intertrigo is a major predisposing condition for cellulitis/acute dermatolymphango adenitis (ADLA) and the number of lesions is the strongest predictor of frequency of ADLA in lymphedema (LE) patients. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Obesity is associated with the incidence of stretch marks, acanthosis nigricans, lymphedema, cellulitis, hirsutism, and intertrigo. [diki.pl]
Risk Factors for Chronic Intertrigo of the Lymphedema Leg in Southern India: A Case-Control Study. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2015 Dec;14(4):377-83. doi: 10.1177/1534734615604289. Epub 2015 Sep 8. PubMed PMID: 26353823. PubMed. [dermnetnz.org]
- Inguinal Lesions
Since the maculopapular eruption regressed concomitantly with the orogenital lesions as well as the eroded inguinal lesions prior to specific therapy, our observation indicates that intertriginous lesions may constitute one of the early cutaneous markers [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Severe interdigital intertrigo with erythema suggestive of cellulitis. Figure 2. Severe interdigital intertrigo with erythema suggestive of cellulitis. [aafp.org]
[…] ab igne ( L59.0 ) erythema due to external agents in contact with skin ( L23 - L25 ) erythema intertrigo ( L30.4 ) Chafing L30.4 Dermatitis (eczematous) L30.9 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code L30.9 Dermatitis, unspecified 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific [icd10data.com]
intertriginous, erythema; intertrigo, intertriginous; eczema, intertrigo; erythema Japanese 間擦疹, ｶﾝｻﾂｼﾝ Swedish Intertrigo Czech opruzení, intertrigo, Intertrigo Finnish Intertrigo Russian INTERTRIGO, OPRELOST', ИНТЕРТРИГО, ОПРЕЛОСТЬ German Intertriginoeses [fpnotebook.com]
Note In this block the terms dermatitis and eczema are used synonymously and interchangeably. [icd10data.com]
Some cases do not respond to treatment for tinea or eczema. METHODS: Patients with foot intertrigo with a poor response to antifungal or antiinflammatory treatment from 2004 to 2009 were included in this study. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
– itchy, acute eczema may blister and be red, but chronic eczema may be dried, thickened skin Contact irritant dermatitis – irritant-dependent – could be sweat, urine, friction, deodorants, soaps, laundry detergent, washing Contact allergic dermatitis [myvagina.com]
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047) MSH D007402 ICD10 L30.4 SnomedCT 156366001, 200947005, 58759008 English Intertrigo, intertrigo, intertrigo (diagnosis), Intertrigo [Disease/Finding], Eczema intertrigo, Erythema intertrigo, Intertrigo (disorder), eczema [fpnotebook.com]
- Skin Rash
The skin-on-skin contact that leads to the skin rash is inevitable for those who have excessive fat concentrated in various areas of the body. [medicaldaily.com]
Within all the people who go to their doctor with intertrigo (skin condition), 87% report having skin rash, 47% report having abnormal appearing skin, and 38% report having skin dryness, peeling, scaliness, or roughness. [symcat.com]
Intertrigo is a common skin rash seen in skin-folds like the armpits, beneath the breasts, genital area and abdomen – in infants it can show up as diaper rash. [moderndermct.com]
A salve containing 1.9 weight percent peppermint oil in petroleum jelly was applied to the skin rash on two consecutive days. However, this did not cure or alleviate the itchy skin rash. [google.com]
Unfortunately, these ‘pockets’ or ‘skin folds’ are a breeding ground for Intertrigo, (pronounced inter-try-go) a skin rash that thrives in hot, sweaty places where skin rubs against skin. [interdry.com]
- Warm Skin
The common risk factor is prolonged moist and warm skin from sweating. I see patients with this skin fold rash all year long. During the summer, it’s due to the hot weather. [drbaileyskincare.com]
- Nikolsky's Sign
sign (i.e., disruption of the epidermal layer with lateral pressure, leading to ulceration) Psoriasis Chronic scaling papules and plaques; often affects extensor surfaces of the elbows and knees; associated with silvery scale Noninflammatory diseases [aafp.org]
The most common microrganisms among KS patients were T. mentagrophytes (16%), S. aureus (14.9%), P. aeruginosa (13.9%), S. marcescens (5,9%), while among non-KS patients were S. aureus (26,9%), C. albicans (22%), S. agalactiae (7.7%) and E. coli (9.9% [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
High carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in nine cases of fungus-free intertrigo of the toe cleft. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53(4):484–486. 27. Adisen E, Onder M. Viral infections of the folds (intertriginous areas). [dovepress.com]
The diagnosis of intertrigo is mainly based on clinical history and appearance of lesion as it is presented by the patients.
A Potassium Hydroxide smear may be performed by a dermatologist to demonstrate the fungal mycelia that may be propagating in the lesion.
Culture and sensitivity testing from the lesions may help clinician determine the best anti-bacterial and anti-fungal medications available for the patient.
- Gram-Positive Bacteria
BACKGROUND: Foot intertrigo, occurring in the interdigital space, is mostly caused initially by dermatophytes and yeasts and less frequently by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intertrigo can be complicated by various microorganisms, including yeasts (candidal intertrigo), dermatophytic fungal intertrigo, Gram-positive bacteria (erythrasma), as well as allergic and irritant reactions to various medications and chemicals. [rxlist.com]
A diagnosis of Fusarium solani infection was made. Systemic and topical therapy with terbinafine led to clinical but not mycological recovery. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intertrigo interorteils a Fusarium solani a Dakar [Tinea pedis due to Fusarium solani in Dakar]. J Mycol Med. 2015;25(2):155–158. French. 15. Diongue K, Ndiaye M, Diallo MA, et al. Fungal interdigital tinea pedis in Dakar (Senegal). [dovepress.com]
Interdigital intertrigo of the feet due to therapy-resistant Fusarium solani. Dermatology. 1999;199:177–9. 10. Holdiness MR. Management of cutaneous erythrasma. Drugs. 2002;62:1131–41. 11. Laube S, Farrell AM. [aafp.org]
Treatment of uncomplicated intertrigo may only need to modify environmental factors like the alteration of heat and humidity with an air conditioning unit. Areas that are involved may be treated with weak steroids like 1% hydrocortisone cream and a thick layer of drying ointments like zinc oxide.
Appropriate anti-fungals may be used for secondary mycoses like Miconazole and Clotrimazole. Patients with pruritic intertrigo in the inguinal folds with secondary Candida infection may respond rapidly with a topical combination of Isoconazole nitrate and Diflucortolone valerate .
Infants may benefit from absorbent diapers and barrier pastes (Desitin) in preventing diaper rash in the gluteal folds of the buttocks.
Immunosuppressants like Tacrolimus and Pimecrolimus may be used to control inflammation in intertrigo with fewer long term side-effects .
Prognosis in intertrigo is usually good, for primary inflammation does not cause the morbidity and mortality. In lesions harboring the source of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, immunocompromised patients and the elderly may complicate in to full blown sepsis which could have a grim outlook. The change in the patient’s habits and other modifiable risk factors like obesity and proper hygiene can lead to the spontaneous resolution of the disease.
The most common complications of intertrigo is secondary infections. Fungal infection may result from the propagation of a resident fungal flora in an immunecompromised host like diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis and long term steroid users.
Bacterial infections may either be opportunistic or invading pyogenic bacteria which may cause pruritus, pustules or abscess. In interdigital intertrigo with onychomycoses, can lead to severe bacterial infection and may complicate to erysipelas, cellulitis, fasciitis and osteomyelitis .
In severe maceration of the skin surface, bleeding may ensue. Disydrosis or pompholyx is a chronic and recurrent dermatosis of the plantar foot which complicates from interdigital intertrigo with mycosis . Strong topical agents used to treat bacterial infections may complicate to contact dermatitis if used injudiciously. The formation of streak lines in the skin or “Striae” can be a chronic complication of continuous topical steroid use for its treatment.
The dermatitis in intertrigo is caused by simple friction, moisture and heat. Irritation in intertrigo may be initiated by allergic reaction to contact chemical agents, or intake of allergenic food or medicines.
Internationally, intertrigo is very common in obese patients and diabetics especially in warm and humid climates. The common diaper rash in the groin and the buttocks in infants are in part caused by intertrigo.
Mortality or morbidity may not be directly caused by intertrigo but it is considered one of the primary source of bacterial infections. Older patients are more prone to intriginous inflammation because of prolonged immobilization, reduced immunity and incontinence issues.
The main pathophysiology of intertrigo is the mechanical friction of the two skin causing skin erosion and maceration of the contacting surfaces. The opposing skin surfaces are aggravated by heat and moisture making it sore and painful.
The dent in the integrity of the skin will propagate the growth of secondary bacterial and fungal infection of the intertriginous areas. Secretions of urine, fecal fluid, vaginal fluids and sweat may propagate more inflammation in intertrigo.
Intertrigo is easily preventable in most cases. Intertriginous areas may be greased with lubricating emollients like petroleum jelly and topical barriers like zinc oxide prior to strenuous activities to prevent friction of the skin.
The frequent bathing in warm and humid climate may wash off perspiration in the skin folds. Weight reduction is one of the most effective way to prevent intertrigo by eliminating the unnecessary skin folds and fat folds (panniculus) where the disease may propagate.
Intertrigo is an inflammatory condition of the skin where there is constant friction like the axilla, groins, perineum, breast creases and fat folds in obese people . The word intertrigo originated from the Latin word “inter” meaning in between and “terere” to rub translates to the constant rubbing of skin which causes irritation and maceration .
Areas of the body that are in constant skin to skin contact are generally referred to as “intertriginous areas”, thus inflammation of these skin areas are sometimes referred to as Intertrigionus dermatitis. The inflammation is aggravated by friction, heat and high moisture where it may lead to a painful erythema, pruritus, and oozing sore. Intertrigo may easily harbor bacterial and fungal infection of the skin.
Physicians emphasize to patients the importance of weight reduction in the prevention of Intertrigo . Intertrigo should be seen as a common complication of diabetics and obese people . Frequent and consistent personal hygiene is also a good practice which may also groom a healthy well-being.
Extra effort on the daily care of the skin folds and creases may reduce the emergence of Intertrigo and its secondary infections. Patients on prescribed medications should do regular monitoring of the lesion and should openly communicate to their physicians any changes they may notice on the progression of the lesion.
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- Chang Gung Med J. 2011; 34(1):44-9 (ISSN: 2309-835X), Veraldi S. Rapid relief of intertrigo-associated pruritus due to Candida albicans with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy. Mycoses. 2013; 56 Suppl 1:41-3 (ISSN: 1439-0507)
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- American Academy of Family Physicians. Information from your family doctor. Intertrigo: what you should know. Am Fam Physician. Sep 1 2005;72 (5):840.
- Hahler B. An overview of dermatological conditions commonly associated with the obese patient. Ostomy Wound Manage. Jun 2006;52(6):34-6, 38, 40 passim.