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Intestinal Botulism

Intestinal Toxin-Mediated Botulism


Presentation

  • Antibiotic therapy is ineffective on the toxin action and can exacerbate the neuromuscular blockade, but it is useful when secondary infections are present.[orpha.net]
  • The progressive motor weakness and autonomic dysfunctions are the hallmark of the presentation of botulism.[ann-clinmicrob.biomedcentral.com]
  • An important gene associated with Intestinal Botulism is LY96 (Lymphocyte Antigen 96), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Class I MHC mediated antigen processing and presentation.[malacards.org]
  • Typically, there is no known food or wound source and prolonged excretion of organisms and toxin is present in the stool. 5 Common Skin Problems Answered Our skin may just feel like a mere shield that protects us from the world outside.[rrnursingschool.biz]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 5-year-old boy, who developed general muscle weakness, constipation, ptosis and mydriasis during the third induction therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Anemia
  • She had been chronically immunosuppressed with oral corticosteroids (10-15 mg/d) for her autoimmune anemia. Her personal and family histories were unremarkable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE REPORT A 27-year-old male with Fanconi anemia and secondary myelodysplastic syndrome underwent a T-cell–depleted allo-HCT from his human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical mother 4 months before the case presentation.[academic.oup.com]
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
  • Outpatient medications included omeprazole and 5 courses of oral antimicrobial treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections during the previous 3 months.[academic.oup.com]
Tachypnea
  • She experienced worsening tachypnea and dysarthria and had bilateral ptosis, lateral gaze palsy with no convergence of the right eye, and sluggish pupillary reaction to light within 12 hours of admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Progressive Dysphagia
  • Report of Case A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of worsening low back pain, difficulty raising her arms and walking up stairs, and a “thick tongue” with progressive dysphagia and dysarthria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Upper Abdominal Pain
  • She had been in her usual state of health until the previous day, when she experienced onset of upper abdominal pain and distension, followed by shortness of breath. She reported no consumption of home-preserved foods.[academic.oup.com]
Thrombosis
  • Unfortunately, she ultimately experienced recurrent deep venous thrombosis, a complication of her prolonged illness, and died in the rehabilitation facility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Skin Lesion
  • She had no fever, vomiting, diarrhea, insect or tick bites, or presence of new skin lesions. She was hemodynamically stable on admission. She was alert and oriented, with normal heart, lung, and abdominal physical examination findings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Nerve conduction studies were not helpful in the workup of any case C. No patient required mechanical ventilation D. All patients died as a result of complications of adult intestinal toxemia botulism 1.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • See Workup for more detail.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Dyslipidemia
  • In August 2009, a 72-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and irritable bowel syndrome was evaluated in the emergency room of a hospital.[academic.oup.com]

Treatment

  • Management and treatment The antitoxin therapy must be associated with supportive care in an intensive care unit (ICU). Equine antitoxin treatment for adults has a half-life of 5-8 days.[orpha.net]
  • Fig. 1 Time course of treatments and neurological symptoms. At top, treatment courses of chemotherapies (gray rectangles), conditioning therapy (white box), and bone marrow tranplantation (BMT, the black arrow) are shown.[ann-clinmicrob.biomedcentral.com]
  • Part one discusses the approach to neuromuscular disorders, covering principles and basics, neuromuscular investigations, and assessment and treatment of neurological disorders.[books.google.ro]
  • Typically, antitoxin treatment is administered based on clinical suspicion for botulism based on a patient’s clinical presentation; confirmatory specialized laboratory testing for botulism is performed after treatment is initiated.[academic.oup.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis When treatment is administered early and with appropriate intensive care, the prognosis is generally good, no long-term side effects have been observed, and death resulting from respiratory failure is extremely rare.[orpha.net]
  • . • Evaluate the prognosis of adult intestinal toxemia botulism. Carol E. Snarey, MA, Technical Writer/Editor, Emerging Infectious Diseases. Disclosure: Carol E. Snarey, MA, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Charles P.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • The prognosis for infant botulism patients is excellent with anticipated full and complete recovery. Recovery results from regrowth of the nerve endings that then are able to signal the muscles to contract.[infantbotulism.org]
  • The use of botulinum immune globulin in infants has successfully reduced the time spent in the hospital and the need for mechanical ventilation and tube feeding. 21 The prognosis is excellent, with a case-fatality rate of less than 2 percent. 17 Recovery[aafp.org]

Etiology

  • Etiology The disease results from prolonged intestinal absorption of small quantities of BoNTs produced in situ by C. botulinum type A and B, or rarely by C.botulinum type C (one case) or by neurotoxigenic strains of C. baratii type F or C. butyricum[orpha.net]
  • Only 1% of cases were reported to be of other etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • This report summarizes the microbiological, clinical, and epidemiological data of all cases of intestinal toxemia botulism that have occurred in Italy in the period 1984-2005.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Selected aspects of the development of toxoids, an insight into the anticipated development of bacterial products, and the epidemiologic characteristics of botulism in the United States are also presented.[books.google.ro]
  • Charles Hatheway (Centers for Disease Control) for their assistance in the epidemiologic and laboratory investigations.[nejm.org]
  • In order to collect epidemiological data, it is very important to support family members psychologically,as they feel sorry and guilty for the incidence. Keywords: Clostridium botulinum ;Botulinum Antitoxin;Infant intestinal botulism[cdc.gov.tw]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Additional pathophysiology content helps you better understand the effects of diseases and injuries on the body’s normal physiologic processes.[books.google.com]
  • Because of the recognition of the pathophysiology of this disease and because the known potency and action of botulinum toxin can lead to rapid respiratory arrest, it appeared possible that the in-vivo production of botulinum toxin could cause the sudden[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • General Pathophysiology Botulinum toxin Irreversibly inhibits acetylcholine release from the motor end plates by interfering in the fusion of transmitter-containing vesicles with the presynaptic membrane One of the most potent poisons.[amboss.com]

Prevention

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Botulism in the United States, 1899–1996. Handbook for epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratory workers , 1998 Atlanta, GA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 9.[academic.oup.com]
  • Understanding how botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) makes its way from gut to blood to motor neurons—where it inhibits neurotransmitter release—could lead to ways to prevent botulism.[cen.acs.org]
  • Accordingly, the workbook provided by Taiwan CDC on prevention and control of infant botulism might need to be amended; 3.[cdc.gov.tw]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Botulism Surveillance Summary 2016. Atlanta, GA: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. 10. Midura T.F., Arnon S.S.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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