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Intestinal Coccidiosis


Presentation

  • Baker, D.V.M., Ph.D., professor of parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, for consultation, advice and helpful suggestions regarding effective presentation of our illustrations, and to our expert technologists, Mrs[nejm.org]
  • The parasite can infect all animals on the farm and in some countries the parasite is present on all farms.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • In caecal coccidiosis, a marked typhlitis is present and haemorrhages are seen through the intestinal wall. 352.[thepoultrysite.com]
  • Intestinal coccidiosis infection in domestic rabbits Abstract Keywords References PDF Abstract The present study reports about the intestinal coccidiosis in a commercial rabbit farm.[sciencepubco.com]
  • The number of oocysts present in feces is influenced by the genetically determined reproductive potential of the species, the number of infective oocysts ingested, stage of the infection, age and immune status of the animal, prior exposure, consistency[merckmanuals.com]
Pain
  • Toxoplasmosis occurs in humans usually as low-grade fever or muscle pain for a few days. A normal immune system will suppress the infection but the tissue cysts will persist in that animal or human for years or for life.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Although infection usually does not give rise to symptoms, reports in the literature mention diarrhea, abdominal pain, lassitude and slight weight loss in association with coccidiosis.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Human coccidiosis is produced by species of Isospora; in its severe form it is characterized by diarrhea (sometimes alternating with constipation), fever, abdominal pain, nausea, headache, loss of appetite, and loss of weight.[britannica.com]
  • Clinical signs are reduced appetite, depression, abdominal pain and pale watery mucous membranes, but they can be absent in older rabbits. Inspection of the feces often reveals blood and threads of mucus.[medirabbit.com]
Asymptomatic
  • Most animals infected with coccidia are asymptomatic, but young or immunocompromised animals may suffer severe symptoms and death.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Healthy rabbits can be asymptomatic "carriers" of the protozoa. The oocysts (eggs ), shed with the feces, will contaminate the environment, food and water.[medirabbit.com]
  • Vando Edésio Soares, Dyego Gonçalves Lino Borges, Fernando de Souza Rodriguez and Fernando de Almeida Borges, Efficacy of sulfadoxine trimethoprim compared to management measures for the control of Eimeria parasitism in naturally infected and clinically asymptomatic[doi.org]
Tenesmus
  • Signs may include discharge of blood or tissue, tenesmus, and dehydration. Serum protein and electrolyte concentrations (typically hyponatremia) may be appreciably altered, but changes in Hgb or PCV are seen only in severely affected animals.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Yatoo, A clinically rare occurrence of rectal mucosal prolapse associated with tenesmus in a calf caused by Eimeria sp., Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 41, 3, (723), (2017). L. Matos, M.C. Muñoz, J.M. Molina, F. Rodríguez, D. Perez, A. Lopez, O.[doi.org]
Hemorrhagic Diarrhea
  • Poor weight gain, dehydration, polydipsia, and intermittent to profuse mucoid, watery, or hemorrhagic diarrhea with perineal fecal staining may occur. Secondary bacterial infections may develop and cause acute death.[dora.missouri.edu]
Petechiae
  • Petechiae. White spots or bands in the mucosa. In severe infections they become confluent and cause sloughing of the mucosa. Poor absorption of nutrients/pigments.[thepoultrysite.com]
Neglect
  • Though coccidiosis is well recognized as causing a diarrhoeal and often lethal illness in animals it has been neglected as a cause of disease in man.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Somnolence
  • Clinically, bloody faeces, ruffled feathers, anaemia, reduced head size and somnolence are observed. 347. The area around the vent is stained with blood. The infection is realized by a faecal-oral route.[thepoultrysite.com]
Headache
  • Human coccidiosis is produced by species of Isospora; in its severe form it is characterized by diarrhea (sometimes alternating with constipation), fever, abdominal pain, nausea, headache, loss of appetite, and loss of weight.[britannica.com]

Workup

Hyponatremia
  • Serum protein and electrolyte concentrations (typically hyponatremia) may be appreciably altered, but changes in Hgb or PCV are seen only in severely affected animals. Oocysts can be identified in feces by salt or sugar flotation methods.[merckmanuals.com]

Treatment

  • Intestinal coccidiosis in a 6-mo-old infant terminated fatally after 30 wk of continuous total parenteral nutrition, and proved refractory to treatment with antibiotics, hydrocortisone, and antimetabolic agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the efficacy of treatment for clinical coccidiosis has not been demonstrated for any drug, although it is widely accepted that treatment is effective against reinfection and should therefore facilitate recovery.[merckmanuals.com]
  • With treatment, the prognosis is good. The condition or disease described in this medical article can affect both dogs and cats. If you would like to learn more about how this disease affects cats, please visit this page in the PetMD health library.[petmd.com]
  • Treatment is routine and effective. Diagnosis is made by low-powered microscopic examination of the feces, which is generally replete with oocysts.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Control of coccidiosis in cattle, sheep, and goats is based on sound management, the use of preventive medications, and treatment of clinical cases as necessary. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • With treatment, the prognosis is good. The condition or disease described in this medical article can affect both dogs and cats. If you would like to learn more about how this disease affects cats, please visit this page in the PetMD health library.[petmd.com]
  • Coccidiosis is a highly contagious sporozoal infection in rabbits, with low prognosis of healing. It is caused by a protozoal parasite, Eimeria sp ..[medirabbit.com]

Etiology

  • Coccidia may be etiologic in patients with undiagnosed and obscure diarrhea and malabsorption.[nejm.org]
  • Etiology and pathology of diarrhoea in weaning rabbits. In Auxilia M.T. (ed) Rabbit production systems including welfare. CEE, Luxemburg, 127-137. Peeters J. E., Geeroms R. 1992.[polipapers.upv.es]
  • Etiology: Eimeria are eukaryotic, one-celled parasites. Eimeria intestinalis, E. magna, E. irresidua, and E. flavescens are regarded as the most pathogenic species.[dora.missouri.edu]
  • Jerez, On the etiology of an outbreak of winter dysentery in dairy cows in Brazil, Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 27, 10, (398), (2007). B. Bangoura, A. Daugschies and M.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Among others, questions of parasite biology and epidemiology, its impact on host physiology, and control strategies are dealt with.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Barriga O O & Arnoni J V (1981) Pathophysiology of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits. Vet Parasitol 8, 201-210. Other sources of information Harcourt-Brown F (2014) Digestive System Diseases. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine.[vetstream.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention is based on limiting the intake of sporulated oocysts by young animals so that an infection is established to induce immunity but not clinical signs.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Control of coccidiosis in cattle, sheep, and goats is based on sound management, the use of preventive medications, and treatment of clinical cases as necessary. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention Coccidiostats in feed, vaccination by controlled exposure, hygiene. Immunity is quite short lived (about 30 days) in the absence of continued challenge. Figure 12. Moderate Eimeria acervulina infection (score 2) in chicken duodenum.[thepoultrysite.com]
  • Prevention. The use of coccidiostatics with forages on a rotation basis is the most extensively used means. The immunization against coccidiosis with commercial vaccines is used in broiler breeder flocks.[thepoultrysite.com]
  • It also provides support for the liver and kidneys to keep functioning and prevent organ shut down, as well as the slowing of heart rate. By then, pet owners should also consider special treatment for puppies under such condition.[coccidiaindogs.com]

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