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Intravenous Drug Abuse


Presentation

  • Mean time from the onset of symptoms to presentation was 10 days (range, 1-42 days). Presenting vision in the affected eye ranged from 20/100 to no light perception; the majority of patients had vision of counting fingers or worse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hepatomegaly
  • However, substantial overlap existed, and no difference in hepatomegaly was noted. Ninety percent of AIDS patients were ingesting at least one potentially hepatotoxic drug.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cutaneous Manifestation
  • We report a new cutaneous manifestation of drug abuse: the development of foreign body granulomas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Rosen VJ (1985) Cutaneous manifestations of drug abuse by parenteral injections. Am J Dermatopathol 7: 79-83.[omicsonline.org]
Anterior Uveitis
  • Anterior uveitis and extensive vitreous involvement are common and do not necessarily have associated typical retinal lesions, which are more commonly seen in the compromised host.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All eyes presented with anterior uveitis and vitritis. Detailed examination of the retina could be performed only in 14 of the 21 eyes; 11 showed macular involvement.[iovs.arvojournals.org]

Workup

  • All patients were admitted to the hospital for intravenous antimicrobials and further workup.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All patients were admitted to the hospital for IV antibiotics and/or antifungals as well as further workup, average length of stay was 12 days (4-28 days). 10 of the 18 patients received intravenous antifungals (3 Amphotericin, 7 Voriconazole) during[iovs.arvojournals.org]
  • Nine patients were admitted to the hospital for inpatient workup and administration of systemic antifungal therapy. One patient refused admission.[jamanetwork.com]
Multiple Pulmonary Nodules
  • We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient with history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) who was incidentally found to have bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Torsades De Pointes
  • However, we present 2 cases of torsades de pointes related to post-tricuspid-valve-replacement bradyarrhythmia. Torsades de pointes is a potentially lethal form of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia associated with QT interval prolongation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Granulomatous Tissue
  • Abstract A fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimen of an epitrochlear lymph node from a 22-year-old suspected intravenous drug abuser was submitted for cytologic examination, which revealed numerous granulomatous tissue fragments, histiocytes, lymphocytes[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lymphocytic Infiltrate
  • The phenotypic expression of the lymphocytic infiltrates was similar to the findings reported for idiopathic and HIV-related myocarditis (Am J Pathol 137:1365-1371, 1990).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • METHODS: The 120 individuals in each cohort were treated by the same physicians at the same facility, using the same treatment protocol and management procedures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Overall prognosis is uncertain because of the high incidence of postoperative drug injection despite aggressive drug rehabilitation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Surgery may be required in some cases Untreated Intravenous Drug Abuse Endocarditis can lead to an extremely poor prognosis and is almost always be fatal. With appropriate early diagnosis and treatment, the outcomes are better.[dovemed.com]
  • Our study shows an extremely poor visual prognosis associated with EE in this setting. Keywords: 513 endophthalmitis • 530 fungal disease • 688 retina 2013, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc., all rights reserved.[iovs.arvojournals.org]

Etiology

  • Elucidation of the etiology and pathogenesis could offer an effective treatment for osteoporosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] for IV antibiotics and/or antifungals as well as further workup, average length of stay was 12 days (4-28 days). 10 of the 18 patients received intravenous antifungals (3 Amphotericin, 7 Voriconazole) during their hospital course for suspected fungal etiology[iovs.arvojournals.org]
  • (Etiology) In most cases, Intravenous Drug Abuse Endocarditis is caused by bacteria that include the following: Staphylococcus aureus, which is the most common infection agent Streptococcus sp. Enterococcus sp.[dovemed.com]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract A major epidemic of hepatitis A virus (HAV), associated with intravenous drug abuser (IVDA) communities, was studied by molecular epidemiology using a 348 bp region of the VP1/2PA junction of the HAV genome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For a national strategy to prevent the spread of human immunosuppressive virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS, epidemiological risks must first be analyzed.[nytimes.com]
  • Molecular diagnosis, detection of drug resistance and epidemiology of tuberculosis. Br J Hosp Med 1996 ; 56 : 204 –208. Narvskaia OV, Vishnevskii BI, El'kin AV, et al.[erj.ersjournals.com]
  • Intravenous drug abuse The habitual IV injection of drugs of abuse Epidemiology In the US 2.5 million–population 235 million have used IVDs Infections Pyogenic–eg, endocarditis, pneumonia, sepsis Common agents S pneumoniae , H influenzae , hepatitis–HBV[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Welcome to PT 635 Pathophysiology of Complex Patient Problems This is a wiki created by and for the students in the School of Physical Therapy at Bellarmine University in Louisville KY.[physio-pedia.com]
  • Pathophysiology When injecting a drug intravenously, the individual introduces a bolus of the drug into the vein, producing a rapid and powerful drug high.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Cannabinoid hyperemesis and compulsive bathing: a case series and paradoxical pathophysiological explanation. J Am Board Fam Med. 2010;23:790-793. Prosser JM, Nelson LS. The toxicology of bath salts: a review of synthetic cathinones.[library.med.utah.edu]

Prevention

  • Since community prevention approaches have been found effective with other target populations, this article considers community prevention as an AIDS reduction strategy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We have to prevent and treat one disease, drug addiction, to prevent another, AIDS. As you pointed out, this city has long waiting lists for methadone maintenance; drug-free rehabilitation programs are full to capacity.[nytimes.com]

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