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Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonellosis

Rare Form of Salmonellosis


Presentation

  • All patients made a complete recovery with intravenous antibiotics and did not present with relapses or major infections during long-term follow-up.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Presented at: 9th International Conference on Typhoid and Invasive NTS Disease; 2015 April 30–May 3; Bali, Indonesia [cited 2016 Jan 19]. .[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Most of the time the disease presents mimicking enteric fever, malaria, etc. At present, diagnosis of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections largely depends upon culture based methods.[epostersonline.com]
  • With its diverse clinical presentations and alarming case fatality rate (20%: ranging from 3% to 50%), iNTS necessitates timely diagnosis and intervention.[journalcmpr.com]
  • Between 2003 and 2004, fewer adult men than women presented with iNTS (male-to-female rate ratio 0.73 and 0.89, respectively). This was reversed from 2005 through 2013 (ranging from 1.07 in 2005 to 1.44 in 2013).[coalitionagainsttyphoid.org]
Burkina Faso
  • Typhi ranged from 0 per 100,000 person-years in Sudan to 383 per 100,000 PY in Burkina Faso; while the incidence of iNTS ranged from 0 in Sudan, Ethiopia, Madagascar, and South Africa to 237 per 100,000 in Burkina Faso.[ivi.int]
  • The supplement includes 19 scientific papers that describe the toll of invasive Salmonella infections in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal,[kemri-wellcome.org]
  • About this article Publication history Accepted 05 September 2012 Published 30 September 2012 DOI Further reading Whole genome sequencing of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from humans and poultry in Burkina Faso Assèta[nature.com]
Physician
  • Chief Editor Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • We conducted a prospective observational study between May and September, 2012 (NCT 01681914, www.clinicaltrials.gov), at three health centers in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, to evaluate the performance of new Mozambican guidelines for non-physician[jgid.org]
  • The Lexi-Comp Content is clinically oriented and is intended to be used only by Users who are: (1) researchers who will not use the information for medical diagnosis or treatment, and (2) physicians and other competent healthcare professionals who will[redbook.solutions.aap.org]
Asymptomatic
  • Conversely, non-typhoid salmonellosis (NTS) remains widespread, because of food contamination or asymptomatic carriage. Non-typhoid salmonellosis can be severe when becoming invasive non-typhoid salmonellosis (iNTS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Salmonella Typhi Complications include Septic death ( 30% if untreated) Asymptomatic chronic carrier in gall bladder ( 10%) Six pts from the same family came to ER with 2 days of LOW grade FEVER, ab cramps, vomiting.[quizlet.com]
  • Asymptomatic carriage is usually self-limited and antibiotics treatment is rarely required.[slideshare.net]
Rigor
  • CASE PRESENTATION A 19-year old girl was admitted to the North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Shillong with complaints of abdomen pain, vomiting, fever and rigors along with burning micturition for 2 days.[epostersonline.com]
  • First, our rigorous systematic search for population-based incidence data in the literature resulted in a limited number of eligible sources.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
Pallor
  • Patients most commonly presented with fever and pallor while clinical features of HIV-infected patients also included oralpharyngeal lesions. 65% of patients improved or recovered prior to hospital discharge while 26% either died in the hospital or were[sciencedaily.com]
  • The most common clinical features were fever (76/97, 78%) ( 38.0 C) and pallor (56/101, 56%).[journals.plos.org]
Abdominal Cramps
  • No differences between TF and iNTS patients were observed in incidence of fever, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, headache, nausea and vomiting and duration of antibiotic therapy ( 7 days in both groups).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Typical Symptoms of Salmonella infection: Appear 6 to 72 hours after eating contaminated food and last for 3 to 7 days without treatment.[foodborneillness.com]
  • One day later he experienced severe abdominal cramps and non-bloody diarrhea. The diarrhea resolved, but he developed recurrent fevers one week later. On initial presentation he was febrile to 38.3C. Physical examination was unrevealing.[shmabstracts.com]
  • Symptoms, which typically begin 12 to 72 hours after exposure to the bacteria, can include: Diarrhea, which may be bloody Abdominal cramps Fever Headache Nausea and vomiting Loss of appetite Typhoid fever causes a sustained fever of 103 to 104 degrees[everydayhealth.com]
  • Those infected often develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps that may persist for several days.[afludiary.blogspot.com]
Suggestibility
  • Although comorbidities are more often associated with iNTS, the results of our study suggest that clinical management of these two diseases should remain similar.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • DOI PubMed Top Suggested citation for this article : Imran Khan M, Katrinak C, Freeman A, Franco-Paredes C.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • But the new study suggests that these two Typhimurium lineages have had genetic changes that make them more typhoid-like and thus capable of spreading from person to person.[sciencemag.org]
  • A study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases suggests that iNTS disease, like in sub-Saharan Africa, is a severe infection with a high mortality rate in Vietnam.[sciencedaily.com]
  • Other than recent antibiotic exposure and high income, individual risk factors for the acquisition and carriage of resistance could not be identified, suggesting that population-level interventions are needed.[ajtmh.org]
Burning Micturition
  • CASE PRESENTATION A 19-year old girl was admitted to the North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Shillong with complaints of abdomen pain, vomiting, fever and rigors along with burning micturition for 2 days.[epostersonline.com]

Workup

Helicobacter Pylori
  • Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population.[liverpool.ac.uk]

Treatment

  • She was discharged after one week and repeat blood culture taken after treatment was sterile.[epostersonline.com]
  • In these patients, prompt appropriate treatment leads to favorable outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Paratyphi A showed high resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin; Nepal’s National Antibiotic Treatment Guideline ( ) recommends ciproflaxacin for treatment of enteric fever, highlighting the need for updated treatment guidelines ( 11 ).[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • The proper diagnosis and timely treatment is essential and understanding of the pathogenesis between these correlations will assist in the development of preventive strategies for this illness.[journalcmpr.com]
  • , Top Dentist Treatment, India wishes all a very Happy Shivratri ![pinterest.at]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis is usually good unless severe underlying disease is present. Asymptomatic carriage is usually self-limited and antibiotics treatment is rarely required.[slideshare.net]
  • Incidence and prognosis of non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in Denmark: a 10-year county-based follow-up study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis . 2006 ; 25 : 151 – 8 .[wwwnc.cdc.gov]

Etiology

  • The course disease may progress to a chronic constrictive pattern especially with tubercular etiology. Non-typhoidal Salmonella has rarely been reported as a cause of pericarditis.[cureus.com]
  • The susceptibility profiles varied between the three different etiological groups and we found that S.[journals.plos.org]
  • Etiology  The causative organism, V. cholerae, serogroups 01 and 1039. Epidemic cholera is caused by V. cholerae serogroup 01. which is divided into three serotypes, Ogava, Inaba, Hikojima.[slideshare.net]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev . 2015 ; 28 : 901 – 37 .[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between malaria and invasive non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infections, especially in children. We explore the role of iron as a possible cofactor in this association.[agris.fao.org]
  • METHODOLOGY We analysed the epidemiology, clinical presentation and serotype distribution of invasive NTS among Mozambican children admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital between May 2001 and April 2006.[semanticscholar.org]
  • 10,000 Salmonella Genomes Project A worldwide effort to understand the epidemiology, transmission and virulence of invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonellosis.[10k-salmonella-genomes.com]
  • There are currently no licensed vaccines against paratyphoid fever and iNTS disease, however several candidates are in development and surveillance for paratyphoid fever and iNTS will help establish robust baseline epidemiological data for future vaccine[chrfbd.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • The proper diagnosis and timely treatment is essential and understanding of the pathogenesis between these correlations will assist in the development of preventive strategies for this illness.[journalcmpr.com]
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have been responsible for maintaining the format for formula designation.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Conference objectives were to inform the audience about progress made in the epidemiologic understanding of enteric fever and invasive NTS (iNTS) disease, in advancements in diagnostics and clinical management, and in the development and use of vaccines to prevent[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Prevention of Salmonella Infection These safety measures can help prevent Salmonella poisoning: Wash your hands before preparing food and after handling raw meats Cook meat and eggs thoroughly until they reach an internal temperature of 160 F (71 C) Do[foodborneillness.com]

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