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Iodine Deficiency Goiter

Iodine Deficiency Goitre


Presentation

  • There, before initiation of the program, a goiter endemic of moderate severity was present, as evidenced by goiter prevalence of 55% in school children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present study, three talukas were observed of not using noniodized salt (Lalpur, Jodiya, Dhrol).[thetrp.net]
  • N Engl J Med 1997;337:888-896. ‎ 468 ページ - Role of aberrant HLA-DR expression and antigen presentation in induction of endocrine autoimmunity. Lancet 1983; 2: 1115-19. ‎ 401 ページ - F, et al.[books.google.com]
  • TSH 4.10micromole per litre, fT3 5.4picomole per litre, fT4 Case 2 A 17-year-old female presented with weight gain and tiredness. She was found to have a small central goitre.[endocrine-abstracts.org]
  • Urinary iodine excretion reflects the present iodine status of a geographical region.[intechopen.com]
Goiter
  • By April 1983, overall goiter frequency in school children had declined to 6.1%, and large goiters (WHO Grade 2) had virtually disappeared.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ) E01.2 iodine-deficiency (endemic) E01.2 Struma - see also Goiter nodosa (simplex) E04.9 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code E04.9 Nontoxic goiter, unspecified 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To Goiter NOS Nodular goiter (nontoxic) NOS endemic[icd10data.com]
  • goiter prevalence was 4.83% among school children aged 6-12 years.[thetrp.net]
  • Apparently, this was a case of endemic goiter. Endemic goiter used to be common in the United States. Indeed, the upper Midwest was once known as the “goiter belt” in reference to the prevalence of goiter only a few generations ago.[healio.com]
Euthyroid
  • This disorder is entirely preventable by making sure that pregnant women have sufficient iodine in their diet to be euthyroid (having adequate thyroid hormone levels).[courses.washington.edu]
  • A gioter is an enlarged thyroid gland and can be caused by hypothyroidism. hyperthyroidism, or euthyroid. In your case above hyperthyroidism was the cause of the goiter, hyperthyroidism is not caused by iodine defiency.[allnurses.com]
  • Precise control of how many proteins are made from these genetic blueprints maintains the normal or euthyroid thyroid state.[endocrine.surgery.ucsf.edu]
  • Euthyroid pubertal goiter is especially frequent in adolescents, because iodine metabolism is accelerated during this period of life ( Delange & Ermans, 1967 ).[intechopen.com]
  • Thyroid iodine content and turnover in euthyroid subjects: validity of estimation of thyroid iodine accumulation from short-term clearance studies. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 29, 721–727 (1969). 14. Stanbury, J. B. et al.[nature.com]
Myxedema
  • Myxedema is a rare but life-threatening complication of hypothyroidism that can be caused by iodine deficiency.[healthline.com]
  • On occasions, the “escape” or “adaptation” phenomenon does not occur, giving rise to the persistent inhibition of thyroid hormone formation, leading to hypothyroidism and goiter (myxedema).[omicsonline.org]
Hoarseness
  • But large goiters can make it hard to breathe or swallow and can cause a cough and hoarseness.[mayoclinic.org]
  • This can lead to symptoms including a visible swelling at the base of the neck, coughing, difficulty swallowing, tight feeling in the throat, hoarseness or trouble breathing.[livestrong.com]
  • Symptoms may include fatigue, weight gain, hair loss, dry hair, dry skin, constipation, cold intolerance, a puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness/aches, depression, memory loss, and more.[prevention.com]
  • Symptoms expressing themselves later in the course of the disease are hoarseness; menstrual disorders; puffy hands, face, and feet; thickening of the skin; thinning of eyebrows; increased cholesterol levels; muscle and/or joint aches and stiffness; slowed[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • When symptoms do occur, the following are most common: throat symptoms of tightness, cough, and hoarseness trouble swallowing in severe cases, difficulty breathing, possibly with a high-pitch sound Other symptoms may be present because of the underlying[medicalnewstoday.com]
Cough
  • But large goiters can make it hard to breathe or swallow and can cause a cough and hoarseness.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Surgery to remove an enlarged thyroid can relieve compression of nearby structures and improve symptoms in patients with related difficulty swallowing, cough, or shortness of breath.[endocrine.surgery.ucsf.edu]
  • This can lead to symptoms including a visible swelling at the base of the neck, coughing, difficulty swallowing, tight feeling in the throat, hoarseness or trouble breathing.[livestrong.com]
  • When symptoms do occur, the following are most common: throat symptoms of tightness, cough, and hoarseness trouble swallowing in severe cases, difficulty breathing, possibly with a high-pitch sound Other symptoms may be present because of the underlying[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Iodine deficiency is also linked to the development of goiter (thyroid enlargement), the condition of which can cause coughing, rapid heart rate, heat intolerance, shortness of breath, throat tightness, and weight gain.[verywell.com]
Vomiting
  • In rare cases, iodine poisoning can occur, which includes symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weak pulse, fever and even coma.[belmarrahealth.com]
Weak Pulse
  • In rare cases, iodine poisoning can occur, which includes symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weak pulse, fever and even coma.[belmarrahealth.com]

Workup

  • In the thyroid gland, I-concentration is more progressive, also in the reservoir (from 1% after 30 minutes, to 5.8% after 48 hours, of the total injected dose. [17] The diagnostic workup of a suspected iodine deficiency includes signs and symptoms as[en.wikipedia.org]
Abnormal Thyroid Function Test
  • THYROID FUNCTION TEST 47 THYROID DISORDERS OF INFANCY 462 P A RT IV CALCIUM AND BONE METABOLISM 473 MORPHOLOGY OF THE PARATHYROID 51 PARATHYROID HORMONE 497 PHYSIOLOGY OF CALCIUM 52 PARATHYROID HORMONERELATED 512 CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BONE MINERAL[books.google.com]
Abnormal Thyroid Function Test
  • THYROID FUNCTION TEST 47 THYROID DISORDERS OF INFANCY 462 P A RT IV CALCIUM AND BONE METABOLISM 473 MORPHOLOGY OF THE PARATHYROID 51 PARATHYROID HORMONE 497 PHYSIOLOGY OF CALCIUM 52 PARATHYROID HORMONERELATED 512 CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BONE MINERAL[books.google.com]

Treatment

  • Abstract A recently described method for the prevention and treatment of endemic iodine deficiency and goiter, introduction of iodine into a public water supply, was tested in Troina, a town of about 13,000 inhabitants in northeast Sicily.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most Goiters do not need any treatment. Visit your doctor to determine the best treatment for you. Diet-changes: If your goiter is caused by your diet, these suggestions can help you to get enough iodine.[infonet-biovision.org]
  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3877-3885. ‎ 4 ページ - Murray, GR: Note on the Treatment of Myxoedema by Hypodermic Injections of an Extract of the Thyroid Gland of a Sheep, Brit. ‎ 170 ページ - Rawson EJ, Simmons DM, Swanson LW, Rosenfeld MG.[books.google.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis [ edit ] With iodine supplementation, goiters caused by iodine deficiency decrease in size in very young children and pregnant women.[en.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • Etiology and pathophysiology of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Insufficient dietary iodine intake is the most important etiological factor of disorders caused by iodine deficiency, but goitrogens (perchlorates, thiocyanates), physiological periods[intechopen.com]
  • Dietary supplies of iodine and thiocyanate in the etiology of endemic goitre in Imphal East district of Manipur, north east India. Indian J Med Res 2008;128:601-5. [ PUBMED ] 17. Shankar R, Moorthy D, Pandav CS, Tiwari JS, Karmarkar MG.[thetrp.net]
  • The role of goitrogenic factors distinct from iodine deficiency in the etiology of goiter [French]. Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris) 49, 302–305 (1988). 72. Glinoer, D.[nature.com]

Epidemiology

  • Methods: Epidemiological and ecological studies were carried out. Two urban areas were selected from the moderate endemic zones of goiter.[journals.lww.com]
  • International journal of epidemiology 28: 742–749. View Article Google Scholar 28.[journals.plos.org]
  • Epidemiology Several regions worldwide are believed to be iodine deficient of different degree, but the true extent is not fully known. 50% of the world population was estimated to live in countries with iodine deficiency.[intechopen.com]
  • Vanderpump MP (2011) The epidemiology of thyroiddisease. Br Med Bull 99: 39-51. Mansourian AR (2011) A reviewon the metabolicdisorders of iodinedeficiency. Pak J BiolSci 14: 412-424.[omicsonline.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] goitrogens, such as calcium Gender (higher occurrence in women) Smoking tobacco Alcohol (reduced prevalence in users) Oral contraceptives (reduced prevalence in users) Perchlorates Thiocyanates Age (for different types of iodine deficiency at different ages) Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Etiology and pathophysiology of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Insufficient dietary iodine intake is the most important etiological factor of disorders caused by iodine deficiency, but goitrogens (perchlorates, thiocyanates), physiological periods[intechopen.com]

Prevention

  • The high prevalence of goiter among children at the age of 6-12 stressed the need to evaluate the effectiveness of goiter preventive measures in relation with the level of endemicity of the areas and preventive means, applied.[journals.lww.com]
  • Because ofits effects on brain development, iodinedeficiency is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation in the world.[books.google.com]
  • The 2012 Revised Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (NGF) is urging the use of iodized salt to prevent IDD.[nnc.gov.ph]
  • Abstract A recently described method for the prevention and treatment of endemic iodine deficiency and goiter, introduction of iodine into a public water supply, was tested in Troina, a town of about 13,000 inhabitants in northeast Sicily.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Repas is the former chairman of the professional diabetes advisory committees of the Wyoming and the Wisconsin Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs.[healio.com]

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