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Iodine-induced Hypothyroidism

Goiter Iodide


Presentation

  • Lymphocytic infiltration was present in about half of the specimens. No specimens showed either stromal fibrosis or parenchymal atrophy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypervascularisation is not present.[intechopen.com]
  • Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine -induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction.[journals.lww.com]
Fatigue
  • Likewise, hair loss, dry skin, fatigue, and weight gain are hypothyroid symptoms. Iodine in high doses will induce the Wolff-Chaikoff effect, where thyroid hormone synthesis and release stops.[tiredthyroid.com]
  • The following are symptoms for hypothyroidism: Fatigue Frequent, heavy menstrual periods Forgetfulness Weight gain Dry, coarse skin and hair Hoarse voice Intolerance to cold The following are symptoms for hyperthyroidism: Irritability/nervousness Muscle[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • This can ultimately lead to symptoms such as weight loss, anxiety, fatigue, hyperactivity, and a general intolerance to heat.[globalhealingcenter.com]
  • The anxiety and irritability improved, and her fatigue began to lift. Once we received her test results back, we found that Jenny had stage 3 adrenal fatigue, and two gut infections; H. pylori and Blastocystis hominis.[thyroidpharmacist.com]
Myxedema
  • 10/1/2016) : No change 2018 (effective 10/1/2017) : No change 2019 (effective 10/1/2018) : No change Hypothyroidism (acquired) E03.9 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code E03.9 Hypothyroidism, unspecified 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To Myxedema[icd10data.com]
  • On occasions, the “escape” or “adaptation” phenomenon does not occur, giving rise to the persistent inhibition of thyroid hormone formation, leading to hypothyroidism and goiter (myxedema).[omicsonline.org]
Pathologist
  • Not only clinicians, but also pathologists, must pay attention to this type of hypothyroidism, because thyroid function may revert to normal by iodine restriction alone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. In 1993, he gained a D.Sc. degree for his outstanding contribution to protein metabolism.[books.google.com]
Cold Intolerance
  • intolerance Weight gain Fatigue Nervous system Headache Paraesthesias (including carpal tunnel syndrome) Cerebellar ataxia Delayed relaxation of deep tendon reflexes Cognitive/ psychiatric Reduced attention span Memory deficits Depression Cardiovascular[racgp.org.au]
Hoarseness
  • The following are symptoms for hypothyroidism: Fatigue Frequent, heavy menstrual periods Forgetfulness Weight gain Dry, coarse skin and hair Hoarse voice Intolerance to cold The following are symptoms for hyperthyroidism: Irritability/nervousness Muscle[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Diagnosis of the disease is often delayed until the patients manifest multiple clinical symptoms of severe hypothyroidism such as fatigue, lethargy, bradycardia, constipation and hoarseness due to the absence of goitor.[japanthyroid.jp]
Asthmatic Bronchitis
  • Abstract Among 1107 patients with asthma or chronic asthmatic bronchitis and 96 with hypothyroidism we found 12 patients with both diseases. Seven of these patients had hypothyroidism induced by iodine-containing expectorants.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • The diagnostic workup begins with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level test. When test results are uncertain, measuring radionuclide uptake helps distinguish among possible causes.[aafp.org]
  • It is widely used not only in the management of thyroid nodules, but also in the diagnostic workup of thyroid dysfunction.[intechopen.com]
Lymphocytic Infiltrate

Treatment

  • Three patients had an exacerbation of their asthma, while another three had no change in their asthma when the iodine treatment was discontinued and the euthyroid state subsequently restored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antithyroid drug treatment duration ( P .001) as well as perchlorate treatment ( P .002) decreased after the mandatory increase.[healio.com]
  • After oral L-thyroxine treatment the goiter disappeared. Thyroid function remained normal when treatment was discontinued after five months although iodine excretion was still 50 times higher (2.5 mg/day) than in normal age matched children.[link.springer.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis and Follow-up The prognosis for a patient with hyperthyroidism is good with appropriate treatment.[aafp.org]

Etiology

  • Use Additional Use Additional Help Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10data.com]
  • Etiologic diagnosis influences prognosis and therapy.[aafp.org]

Epidemiology

  • In 1999, the mandatory iodization of kitchen salt increased from 10 mg potassium iodide to 25 mg/kg salt after an epidemiologic study in the early 1990s indicating that Slovenia was an area with mild iodine deficiency , according to the researchers.[healio.com]
  • .: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism: occurrence and epidemiology. Thyroid, 8, 83–100, 1996. CrossRef Google Scholar Copyright information Authors and Affiliations Sunao Matsubayashi 1 T. Mukuta 1 H. Watanabe 2 H. Fuchigami 2 J. Taniguchi 2 M.[link.springer.com]
  • Following implementation of an iodine supplementation regimen, there is a shift in the epidemiology of specific thyroid diseases, as reviewed in Thyroid 1998 Dec;8(12):1179-83 Epidemiology of thyroid diseases in iodine sufficiency .[mythyroid.com]
  • M., Hreidarsson, A., et al ( 1998 ) Iodine intake and the pattern of thyroid disorders: a comparative epidemiological study of thyroid abnormalities in the elderly in Iceland and in Jutland, Denmark.[bjp.rcpsych.org]
  • […] type 2 AIT shows involuted follicles filled with desquamated vacuolated epithelial cells, scattered inflammatory infiltrate composed of foamy macrophages and lymphocytes, and fibrosis ( Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2008;21:382, Pathol Int 2008;58:55 ) Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Int 2008;58:55 ) Epidemiology More frequent in males than in females (3:1) Occurs in 3% of patients treated with amiodarone in North America, increasing to 10% in countries with low iodine dietary intake ( NCBI - Amiodarone Induced Thyrotoxicosis ) Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Pathophysiological relevance of selenium. J Endocrinol Invest 2013;36 (Suppl 10):1-7. 14. Köhrle J, Gärtner R. Selenium and thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;23:815-27. 15. Zimmermann MB, Köhrle J.[jmnn.org]
  • Interferon-α-related thyroid disease: pathophysiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects”. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.. vol. 89. 2004. pp. 3656-61. (Review of potential thyroid dysfunction associated with interferon-α use.)[endocrinologyadvisor.com]
  • Etiology The causes of hyperthyroidism, and key clinical features that differentiate each condition, are outlined in Table 2. 6, 7 View/Print Table TABLE 2 Common Etiology and Clinical Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism Cause Pathophysiology Gland size* Nodularity[aafp.org]
  • Resources Thyroid Disease Manager is an online, regularly updated resource that includes chapters on all aspects of thyroid disorders from pathophysiology through to management: www.thyroidmanager.org The American Thyroid Association provides clinical[racgp.org.au]

Prevention

  • This up-to-date volume explores both the effects of iodine deficiency as well as the best strategies for IDD prevention.[books.google.com]
  • The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is an effective means of rejecting the large quantities of iodide and therefore preventing the thyroid from synthesizing large quantities of thyroid hormones.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hetzel BS, Thilly CH, Fierro-Benitez R, Pretell EA, Buttfield JH, Stanbury JB (1980) Iodized oil in the prevention of endemic goiter and cretinism. In: Stanbury JB, Hetzel BS (eds) Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism.[link.springer.com]
  • Iodine-induced thyroid conditions are the only thyroid diseases that can truly be prevented.[everydayhealth.com]
  • Congenital hypothyroidism prevention and treatment Prevention of congenital hypothyroidism involves proper iodine levels (not too little or too much), watching what kind of medications the mother takes during pregnancy, and not avoiding iodine-supplementing[belmarrahealth.com]

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