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Isolated Congenital Sclerocornea


Presentation

  • The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only. The material is in no way intended to replace professional medical care by a qualified specialist and should not be used as a basis for diagnosis or treatment.[orpha.net]
  • However, they are occasionally present entirely within the cornea or confined to the conjunctiva.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • A complete eye examination is important to determine if glaucoma or other eye disease is present. In severe cases, a corneal transplant can improve vision, and, of course, it is important to treat glaucoma if present.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • On histopathology vascular invasion was present in all layers of the corneal stroma (fig 1C ), and lamellae were severely disorganised.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A congenital anomaly in which the whole or part of the cornea is opaque and resembles the sclera; other ocular abnormalities are frequently present. sclerocornea /scle·ro·cor·nea/ ( -kor ne-ah ) the sclera and choroid regarded as forming a single layer[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Physician
  • Quickly reference information with help from a convenient outline format, ideal for today’s busy physician.[books.google.de]
  • These professionals may include pediatricians; surgeons; physicians who specialize in disorders of the skin (dermatologists); physicians who diagnose and treat neurological disorders (neurologists and neurosurgeons); eye specialists (ophthalmologists)[rarediseases.org]
  • Primary care physicians, in addition to numerous specialists, play an important role in caring for patients with this disorder.[profiles.stanford.edu]
Movement Disorder
  • This richly illustrated, full color text covers areas such as: malformations; refractive errors, the cornea, glaucoma and cataracts; retina and the optic nerve; eye movement disorders, and systemic disease of the eye.[books.google.de]
Gagging
  • Whereas the predominant corneal PG carries highly sulphated keratan sulphate (KS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), sulphated KSPGs are not major scleral components. 3 Here, we investigate if sclerocornea is more like sclera or cornea in terms of its KSPG molecular[bjo.bmj.com]
  • METABOLIC DISEASES  MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS :  Inherited lysosomal enzyme deficiencies leading to accumulation of GAGs in the cells and extracellular matrix of the cornea.[slideshare.net]
  • This function is attributed to their bifunctional characteristic (protein moiety–binding collagen fibrils to regulate collagen fibril diameters and highly charged glycosaminoglycan [GAG] chains extending out to regulate interfibrillar spacings) that contributes[odlarmed.com]
Alopecia
  • The presence of corneal dermoid with an ipsilateral area of alopecia or nevus of the scalp should prompt MRI to evaluate for intracranial abnormalities and to diagnose encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. [7] Corneal keloids Perry noted, "Corneal keloids[emedicine.medscape.com]
Dyslexia
  • […] cornea morphology Frontal upsweep of hair Phonophobia Avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis Broad distal phalanx of finger Nasolacrimal duct obstruction Portal hypertension Pheochromocytoma Neurofibromas Flared iliac wings Self-mutilation Dyslexia[mendelian.co]
Polyneuropathy
  • […] pigmentation Abnormality of epiphysis morphology Depressed nasal ridge Abnormal form of the vertebral bodies Blue sclerae Abnormality of the metaphysis Nodular goiter Abnormality of lipid metabolism Tremor Synophrys Broad nasal tip Decreased testicular size Polyneuropathy[mendelian.co]
  • Winkelman JE, Delleman JW, Ansink BJJ: Ein hereditäres Syndrom bestehend aus peripherer Polyneuropathie, Hautveränderungen und gitteriger Dystrophie der Hornhaut. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 159:618, 1971 PubMed Google Scholar 561a.[link.springer.com]

Workup

  • Diagnosis, Workup and Treatment Given the ocular examination, the working diagnosis was Peters anomaly.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • A systemic metastatic workup is necessary to direct treatment. Conjunctival melanomas can arise de novo (30%), from nevi (40%), or from primary acquired melanosis (30%).[doctorlib.info]

Treatment

  • The material is in no way intended to replace professional medical care by a qualified specialist and should not be used as a basis for diagnosis or treatment.[orpha.net]
  • As the irreversible effects of glaucoma can lead to blindness, there is high demand for early diagnosis and an ongoing need for practitioners to adopt new and evolving medical and surgical treatment options to improve patient outcomes .[books.google.de]
  • Surgical treatment: Medical treatment before surgery: Beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors Avoid alpha 2-agonists (may cause sleep apnea and respiratory failure) Goniotomy, Trabeculotomy Trabeculectomy Trabeculotomy Aqueous drainage implants Trans-scleral[epomedicine.com]
  • As with sclerocornea, the term “Peters anomaly” would be better regarded as a sign rather than a diagnosis, and ultrasound biomicroscopy evaluation should be performed for proper diagnosis and treatment planning.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • While pediatric treatment is generally the same as adult treatment, it requires extra care to ensure nontoxicity due to blood absorption. 8 Metabolic Conditions Children with corneal deposits may present with several congenital metabolic disorders: Cystinosis[reviewofcontactlenses.com]

Prognosis

  • Diagnosis and Prognosis: The disorder is suspected when simple inspection reveals loss of corneal clarity. Only an eye specialist can determine if this is sclerocornea and not another disorder such as congenital glaucoma.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Prognosis [ 9 ] The prognosis for vision depends on the severity and location of the coloboma (particularly in relation to the optic nerve, macula and maculopapular bundle) and on any complications such as retinal detachment or amblyopia.[patient.info]
  • Visual prognosis is dependent on the disease severity.[webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
  • But they worsen the prognosis.  Hence if peripheral cornea is clear, and there is no cataract, a peripheral iridectomy can be done to create a new visual axis. 51.[slideshare.net]

Etiology

  • Get a balanced view of etiology, diagnosis, and management, and access unique guidance on the practical problems encountered in real-life clinical cases. Impresses the importance of systemic disease in diagnosis and management.[books.google.de]
  • Definition tissue cleft or defect lined by pupillary ruff; no impact on VA/accomodation Concern: may lead to lens subluxation Tx: none, use CLs later in life Etiology: caused by incomplete fusion of the fetal fissure during gestation, inferior nasal,[flashcardmachine.com]
  • No clear etiology has been established, but a viral etiology has been postulated (although antiviral medications have not proven beneficial).[doctorlib.info]
  • The etiology of her pattern of malformation was not identified at that time.[profiles.stanford.edu]

Epidemiology

  • @inproceedings{PantojaMelndez2013AnEI, title {An epidemiological investigation of a Forkhead box protein E3 founder mutation underlying the high frequency of sclerocornea, aphakia, and microphthalmia in a Mexican village}, author {Carlos Alberto Pantoja-Mel[semanticscholar.org]
  • Schaefer G.B. 2014 9 Epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea. ( 24744607 ) Ma D.H....Yang U. 2014 10 Immunohistochemical expression and distribution of proteoglycans and collagens in sclerocornea. ( 23325424 ) Bouhenni R....Edward D.P. 2013 11 An epidemiological[malacards.org]
  • Epidemiology and molecular genetics of congenital cataracts. Int J Ophthalmol. 2011;4(4):422-32. 22. Papania MJ, Wallace GS, Rota PA, et al.[reviewofoptometry.com]
  • Rare diseases leading to childhood glaucoma: Epidemiology, pathophysiogenesis, and management. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:781294. 8. Yang LL, Lambert SR, Drews-Botsch C, et al.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • Epidemiology [ 1 ] The estimated incidence of coloboma is about 1 in 10,000 births. Coloboma is estimated to account for 3-11% of blindness in children worldwide. Aetiology [ 2 ] The eye develops in the embryo, from the optic cup and optic fissure.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Genetic, developmental, metabolic, and idiopathic factors are implicated as the pathophysiologic basis for congenital clouding of the cornea. A common reason for congenital clouding of the cornea is congenital glaucoma.[odlarmed.com]
  • CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA continued…  PATHOPHYSIOLOGY : Raised IOP Rapid enlargement of eye Stretching of cornea Breaks in Descemet’s membrane Endothelial barrier is disturbed Corneal oedema and clouding 16. CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA continued… 17.[slideshare.net]
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology Most cases of Peters anomaly are sporadic without an identified genetic cause. It can occur as an isolated finding or associated with systemic disease as in Peters-plus syndrome.[webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
  • View Article PubMed Google Scholar Romero MF: Molecular pathophysiology of SLC4 bicarbonate transporters. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2005, 14: 495-501.[ojrd.biomedcentral.com]
  • These reports, together with the current study, and the LTBP2 expression pattern in the trabecular meshwork, ciliary body and ciliary process[ 13 ], shows underlying pathophysiology of LTBP2 in different eye diseases.[journals.plos.org]

Prevention

  • Prevent and plan for complications in advance by examining over 1,600 illustrations, photos and graphics (1,250 in color) capturing essential diagnostics techniques, imaging methods and surgical approaches.[books.google.de]
  • Slit lamp examination disclosed diffuse, full thickness opacification, which was more severe in her left eye (fig 1A), preventing examination of the anterior chamber.[bjo.bmj.com]
  • For these reasons, tetracycline, rather than povidone iodine, is recommended for prevention of ON.* * David M, Rumelt S, Weintraub Z. Efficacy comparison between povidone iodine 2.5% and tetracycline 1% in prevention ofophthalmia neonatorum.[slideshare.net]
  • Infants who meet screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) should be screened to help prevent serious visual sequelae, including blindness.[neoreviews.aappublications.org]

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