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Isolated Trigonocephaly

Non-Syndromic Metopic Craniosynostosis


  • Eleven presented with multiple malformations. An in utero exposure to valproic acid was observed in two cases of the group 1, five cases of the group 2 and one case of the group 3.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Presented at the Consensus Conference on Craniosynostoses, Rome 1995 Google Scholar 28. Posnick JC, Lin KY, Chen P, Armstrong D (1994) Metopic synostosis: quantitative assessment of presenting deformity and surgical results based on CT scans.[link.springer.com]
  • FGFR2 mutations are present in Apert and Crouzon syndromes, as well as Pfeiffer syndrome (types 1-3), Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis [5].[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Currently there are over 180 syndromes associated with craniosynostosis, and these vary greatly in terms of identified genes and clinical presentation [ 8 ].[alliedacademies.org]
  • Discussion The present child had partial trisomy of chromosome 13.[indianpediatrics.net]
  • […] interhemispheric variant of holoprosencephaly Multiple synostoses syndrome Nodulosis-arthropathy-osteolysis syndrome Semilobar holoprosencephaly Septopreoptic holoprosencephaly Torg-Winchester syndrome Deafness with labyrinthine aplasia, microtia, and microdontia[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • 】*microgenia 【小顎症】*micrognathia 【小眼球症】*microphthalmia 【小球症】*microcytosis 【小結腸症】*microcolon 【小口症】*microstomia 【小膠細胞腫】*microglioma 【小膠細胞症】*microgliosis 【小細胞癌】*small cell carcinoma 【小視症】*micropsia 【小指症】*microdactyly/*microdactylia/*microdactylism 【小歯症】*microdontia[medo.jp]
  • […] maldevelopment consists in premature coronal synostosis (sometimes lambdoid and/or metopic sutures are involved),irregular ossification of the cal-varium, facial asymmetry with deviation of the nasal septum, narrow palate,shallow orbits,hypertelorism, and lacrimal[rrnursingschool.biz]
Hydrops Fetalis
  • Stay at the forefront of your field thanks to new and completely revised chapters covering topics such as: Principles and Practice l Immune and Non-immune Hydrops Fetalis l Amniotic Fluid Volume l Enhancing Safe Prescribing in the Neonatal Intensive Care[books.google.com]
  • All of them had clinical symptoms such as severe hyperactivity, speech delay, inability to communicate with others, self-mutilation (head banging), irritability, temper tantrum and mental retardation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Self Mutilation
  • All of them had clinical symptoms such as severe hyperactivity, speech delay, inability to communicate with others, self-mutilation (head banging), irritability, temper tantrum and mental retardation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Head Banging
  • All of them had clinical symptoms such as severe hyperactivity, speech delay, inability to communicate with others, self-mutilation (head banging), irritability, temper tantrum and mental retardation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Speech Disorders
  • Topics include Facial nerve rehabilitation; Septorhinoplasty; Vascular lesions; Craniofacial anomalies; Free tissue transfer; Craniomaxillofacial trauma; Cleft lip and palate; Surgical speech disorders; Otoplasty; Microtia; Soft tissu trauma and scar[books.google.com]
  • All of them had clinical symptoms such as severe hyperactivity, speech delay, inability to communicate with others, self-mutilation (head banging), irritability, temper tantrum and mental retardation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Specifically, recommendations include a diagnostic workup by an ophthalmologist within the patient’s first year of life with treatment as needed.[cappskids.org]


  • Inclusion criteria were treatment-naive children with isolated nonsyndromic trigonocephaly, being treated with standardized frontoorbital advancement in our department.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Make informed clinical choices for each patient, from diagnosis and treatment selection through post-treatment strategies and management of complications, with new evidence-based criteria throughout.[books.google.com]
  • In parallel with the increase in basic biological understanding, advances in clinical diagnosis and treatment have been achieved including improved prenatal imaging technology and craniofacial surgical techniques as well as condition-specific care in[books.google.com]
  • Apply the latest treatment options in pediatric care with new chapters on pediatric sleep disorders, pediatric infectious disease, and evaluation and management of the infant airway.[books.google.com]


  • The prognosis, which depends on the associated anomalies, is usually very poor.[sonoworld.com]
  • Prognosis In general, a single operation is all that is necessary to treat this condition and the cosmetic and clinical outcomes are usually excellent especially for otherwise healthy, nonsyndromic infants.[skullbaseinstitute.com]
  • The severity of the cranial bone deformations, associated systemic abnormalities and age of diagnosis may yield variable treatment outcomes and overall prognosis [6].[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • There may be severe airway obstruction and the clinical prognosis is often poor, unless improved by some very aggressive surgical management.[childneurosurgeon.com]
  • Prognosis Dependent on cause of craniosynostosis - if secondary then depends on cause of brain injury.[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • In the last two decades increased knowledge about the structure and function of the human genome has enabled the discovery of the molecular etiologies of most forms of syndromic craniosynostosis, which in turn has allowed for the analysis of normal and[books.google.com]
  • The etiology of craniosynostosis is heterogeneous. Isolated occurrence with unknown etiology is common, mostly affecting the sagittal suture.[ommbid.mhmedical.com]
  • Occurrence Asymmetry of the head is a common occurrence in infants and may have a number of etiologies, including positional deformity, simple craniosynostosis, complex craniofacial synostosis, metabolic bone disease, depressed skull fracture, microcephaly[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • However, the concordance rate of isolated trigonocephaly in monozygotic twins is 43%, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of this disorder.[panafrican-med-journal.com]
  • Etiology: The face is formed by the fusion of four outgrowths of mesenchyme (front nasal, mandible and paired maxillary swellings) and facial clefting is caused by failure of fusion of these swellings.[sonoworld.com]


  • […] craniosynostosis Classification (Orphanet): - Rare bone disease - Rare developmental defect during embryogenesis - Rare eye disease - Rare genetic disease Classification (ICD10): - Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities - Epidemiological[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • Relevant External Links for FREM1 Genetic Association Database (GAD) FREM1 Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator FREM1 Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology: FREM1 No data available for Genatlas for FREM1 Gene Novel FREM1[genecards.org]
  • Epidemiology Frequency United States Incidence of craniosynostosis is 0.04-0.1%. Of affected individuals, 2-8% have primary craniosynostosis. The remaining cases are secondary craniosynostosis, which frequently is accompanied by microcephaly.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The changing epidemiologic spectrum of single-suture synostoses. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:527–533. [CrossRef] [Medline] Tay T, Martin F, Rowe N, Johnson K, Poole M, Tan K, Kennedy I, Gianoutsos M.[cappskids.org]
  • VACTERL association, epidemiologic definition and delineation. Am J Med Genet 1996; 63: 529-536. Botto, LD, Khoury. The spectrum of congenital anomalies of the VATER association: An international study. Am J Med Genet 1997; 71: 8-15.[alliedacademies.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • This provides a platform for ongoing work to understand the processes of suture biogenesis and the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis mutations.[ommbid.mhmedical.com]
  • Pathophysiology Normal skull development Ossification of the cranial vault starts in the central region of each cranial bone and extends outward toward the cranial sutures. Diagram of a neonate's skull demonstrating the location of the sutures.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • This pictorial review illustrates the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of craniosynostosis, the various types of craniosynostoses, common craniofacial syndromes and the role of imaging in their diagnosis and management.[ijri.org]


  • Balaji successfully performed Craniotomy with Total Calvarial Reconstruction with the goal of aligning the midsutural fused area thereby preventing all associated complication.[blog.smbalaji.com]
  • The procedure is performed at a young age in order to provide the brain with enough space to grow and prevent further abnormal growth of the skull.[medicalexpert.com]
  • Página 310 - A randomized trial comparing ticlopidine hydrochloride with aspirin for the prevention of stroke in high-risk patients. ‎[books.google.es]
  • All children receive blood transfusion, Auto-absorbing mini-plates are used during surgery, which absorb in nine months to prevent patients from having long-term hardware implants..[childneurosurgeon.com]
  • J Craniofac Surg 9: 40, 1998Persing JA, Mayer PL, Spinelli HM: Prevention of bitemporal hollowing after fronto-orbital advancement for craniosynostosis.[docslide.com.br]

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