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Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning

Isopropanol Toxicity


Presentation

  • More than 70 acute pediatric presentations are covered in a signs and symptoms section designed with side tabs for easy access.[books.google.com]
  • AED certification is also included in all of the awards presented through this provider.[firstaidkelowna.ca]
  • All of these symptoms will not necessarily be present in every case of alcohol poisoning. In cases of isopropyl ingestion, because of its strong effect on the central nervous system, a person may experience lethargy or ataxia, or may go into a coma.[mcosa.net]
  • If a patient presents in a coma secondary to acute alcohol toxicity and their history is unknown, 100 mg of thiamine can be administered IV to prevent or treat Wernicke’s encephalopathy.[emsworld.com]
Hypothermia
  • You Can Die of Hypothermia from Drinking Too Much Photo: Wilhelm Busch/ Wikimedia Commons Drinking an excess amount of alcohol may lower your body temperature so much that you suffer from hypothermia.[ranker.com]
  • Cover with a blanket to reduce the risk of hypothermia (low body temperature). How can children get alcohol poisoning? Some people give alcohol to little children to make them sleep or to keep them quiet.[baby-safety-concerns.com]
  • Hypothermia also becomes dangerous as there’s risk of brain damage. Also dangerous are when there are fits or seizures which happen when blood glucose levels drop to low levels.[searidgealcoholrehab.com]
  • The following signs and symptoms may indicate a progression from being drunk to alcohol poisoning: confusion hypothermia (the person's body temperature drops) pale skin, sometimes it may take on a bluish tinge the individual is unresponsive but conscious[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Hypothermia: Alcohol causes the blood vessels to expand, resulting in more rapid heat loss from the surface of your skin.[newportacademy.com]
Gastric Lavage
  • Treatment consists of emetics, gastric lavage, milk, oxygen, and artificial respiration.[merckvetmanual.com]
  • -Mild intensity: IV fluids and gastric lavage -Severe intensity (featuring shock and low blood pressure): Hemodialysis Methanol and Ethylene glycol have similar treatment (isn’t that nice?)[knowmedge.com]
  • The Need for Treatment Emergency treatment for isopropyl alcohol poisoning may consist of flushing the system via intravenous fluids, gastric lavage, respiratory support, and, in some cases, dialysis.[futuresofpalmbeach.com]
Vomiting
  • Careful monitoring is a must to make sure the person is breathing okay and if the person is unconscious choking on their vomit is a possibility. Additionally, they can also inhale vomit into their lungs, which can be fatal.[mcosa.net]
  • You should never induce vomiting because this can further damage your esophagus. However, there are steps you should take when you or someone you know has IPA poisoning: Drink plenty of water to help your body flush out the toxin.[healthline.com]
  • This occurs when the person is unconscious from excessive alcohol intake vomits and then chokes.[alcoholanswers.org]
  • Effects include sedation, slurred speech, unsteadiness when walking, and vomiting. Isopropyl alcohol is also extremely irritating to the digestive tract.[poison.org]
  • The symptoms of alcohol poisoning are vomiting, confusion, slow breathing (less than eight breaths per minute), seizures, low body temperature, pale or blueish skin and unconsciousness.[healthyliving.azcentral.com]
Nausea
  • Ingestion of isopropyl alcohol can cause gastrointestinal issues such as cramps, vomiting and nausea. Isopropyl alcohol can also irritate your skin and eyes, as well as cause eye damage.[sciencing.com]
  • This might include an irregular heartbeat called arrhythmia, low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, and vomiting.[newhealthadvisor.com]
  • […] vomiting Diarrhea Pain in the gut Bleeding in the stomach and intestines Bleeding, nausea, and other damage from consuming rubbing alcohol may cause dehydration, which can lead to seizures.[recoveryfirst.org]
  • Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may result from this metabolic acidosis and ventilatory compensation may manifest as Kussmaul’s respirations.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Initially, the side effects of rubbing alcohol poisoning mimic those of a typical drunk person: dizziness, confusion, slurred speech, and nausea.[spoonuniversity.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Vision abnormalities or abdominal pain suggest methanol due to this alcohol’s effects on the retina and the pancreas.[knowmedge.com]
  • These include: Abdominal pain Cold, clammy skin Eye and mucous membrane irritation Lack of coordination Cornea burns Gastritis Brain damage Coma Another long-term side effect of drinking rubbing alcohol is acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS.[solutions-recovery.com]
  • Therefore, abdominal pain, hemorrhagic gastritis, and vomiting can be observed. Unlike methanol and ethylene glycol, isopropanol does not cause a metabolic acidosis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Some side effects include: Abdominal pain. Chest tightness. Cold, clammy skin. Confusion. Diarrhea. Dizziness. Eye and mucous membrane irritation. The throat, stomach, and intestines are particularly sensitive when it is imbibed.[therecoveryvillage.com]
  • The most common adverse effects included eye irritation (31.4%) and vomiting (22.8%). 1 Conjunctivitis, oral irritation, cough, and abdominal pain were also reported.[pharmacytimes.com]
Diarrhea
  • Isopropyl alcohol poisoning signs are GI pain, cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and CNS depression (dizziness, stupor, coma, and death from respiratory paralysis). The liver and kidneys are reversibly affected. Dehydration and pneumonia may occur.[merckvetmanual.com]
  • Drinking a lot of it can cause vomiting, diarrhea, pain, and bleeding in the stomach and intestines. This can lead to dehydration, low blood pressure, shock, and coma. Rubbing alcohol can also be toxic when inhaled.[poison.org]
  • Diarrhea. Dizziness. Eye and mucous membrane irritation. The throat, stomach, and intestines are particularly sensitive when it is imbibed. The nose and eyelids are sensitive when it is inhaled. Headache. Lack of coordination.[therecoveryvillage.com]
  • […] consumption include: Slurred speech Loss of physical coordination Stumbling Sedation Vomiting This industrial alcohol is very irritating to the stomach and intestines, so side effects from consuming this dangerous chemical include: Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea[recoveryfirst.org]
  • Gastrointestinal pain, cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also result. The single lethal dose for a human adult about 250 mls (8 ounces). Skin Contact May cause skin irritation with redness and pain.[neowin.net]
Hypotension
  • A comatose and hypotensive patient was successfully treated with hemodialysis after ingesting 480 mL of isopropyl alcohol. Removal of isopropyl alcohol and its major metabolite acetone was measured in urine, blood, and dialysate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of our patient's hypotonia, hypotension, acidosis, abnormal movements and seizures is likely multifactorial.[nature.com]
  • At discharge, the patient became acutely hypotensive and delirious. He was afebrile, oxygenating well, and had a nonfocal neurologic examination. Intravenous fluids and vasopressors were administered.[nejm.org]
  • It produces an elevated osmolal gap, but generally no abnormal anion gap (though this may be seen as a result of hypotension and lactic acidosis).[first-aid-product.com]
  • Immediate correction of clinical volume depletion and hypotension with isotonic crystalloid infusion (saline).[clinicaladvisor.com]
Palpitations
  • This edition's highlights include new chapters on palpitations, cystic fibrosis, travel related emergencies, and ultrasound and a new appendix on practice pathways.[books.google.com]
  • Quick and copious amounts of alcohol can disrupt regular breathing processes, causing heart palpitations, disrupting gag reflexes and can sometimes in result in a coma or worse – death. This is also known as binge drinking.[hankeylawoffice.com]
  • These side effects range in severity from stomach pain to heart palpitations, but they all spell trouble for the individual who is drinking rubbing alcohol.[solutions-recovery.com]
Confusion
  • IPA poisoning may cause confusion and can be very painful. Doctors will try to find out about the patient’s history. Knowing where, when, and why can help in treatment. The goal of treatment is to clear the alcohol from your body.[drjio.com]
  • IPA poisoning usually causes: stomach pain confusion dizziness slowed breathing In severe cases, it can lead to a coma. IPA poisoning requires immediate medical attention.[healthline.com]
  • Symptoms include confusion, abnormal breathing, and vomiting. In severe cases, alcohol poisoning is life-threatening.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Symptoms can include confusion, vomiting, and seizures. The child may have trouble breathing and flushed or pale skin. Alcohol reduces the gag reflex. This can cause choking. Alcohol may also cause low blood sugar in children.[fairview.org]
  • The symptoms of alcohol poisoning are vomiting, confusion, slow breathing (less than eight breaths per minute), seizures, low body temperature, pale or blueish skin and unconsciousness.[mcosa.net]
Dizziness
  • IPA poisoning usually causes: stomach pain confusion dizziness slowed breathing In severe cases, it can lead to a coma. IPA poisoning requires immediate medical attention.[healthline.com]
  • For example, inhaling isopropyl alcohol vapors may irritate your respiratory tract, and high concentrations of isopropyl alcohol vapor can cause dizziness, drowsiness, headache, staggering and unconsciousness.[sciencing.com]
  • Initially, the side effects of rubbing alcohol poisoning mimic those of a typical drunk person: dizziness, confusion, slurred speech, and nausea.[spoonuniversity.com]
  • Isopropyl alcohol poisoning signs are GI pain, cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and CNS depression (dizziness, stupor, coma, and death from respiratory paralysis). The liver and kidneys are reversibly affected. Dehydration and pneumonia may occur.[merckvetmanual.com]
Slurred Speech
  • Initially, the side effects of rubbing alcohol poisoning mimic those of a typical drunk person: dizziness, confusion, slurred speech, and nausea.[spoonuniversity.com]
  • Effects include sedation, slurred speech, unsteadiness when walking, and vomiting. Isopropyl alcohol is also extremely irritating to the digestive tract.[poison.org]
  • speech, or inability to walk normally or think clearly 2000-2018 The StayWell Company, LLC. 800 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067.[fairview.org]
  • Rubbing Alcohol Effects In the short-term, and with a small dosage, rubbing alcohol can lead to feelings of intoxication, as well as the usual side effects of drunkenness: slurred speech, dizziness, nausea, etc.[solutions-recovery.com]
  • Slurred speech, difficulty talking. Inability to walk. Repeated or uncontrolled vomiting. Cool, clammy, pale, or blue-tinged skin. Slow or irregular breathing. Seizures.[learn-about-alcoholism.com]
Headache
  • For example, inhaling isopropyl alcohol vapors may irritate your respiratory tract, and high concentrations of isopropyl alcohol vapor can cause dizziness, drowsiness, headache, staggering and unconsciousness.[sciencing.com]
  • Symptoms of isopropyl alcohol poisoning include flushing, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, and coma. Use in well-ventilated areas and use protective gloves while using.[first-aid-product.com]
  • Headache. Lack of coordination. Miosis, or narrowed pupils. Near-unconsciousness. Reddened skin, accompanied by pain. Sleepiness. Throat pain. Too much or too little urine. Vomiting. Wheezing.[therecoveryvillage.com]
  • Recovery from alcohol poisoning During recovery from alcohol posioning, the individual may experience: headache somach cramps nausea anxiety tremors It is important to keep hydrated and avoid drinking any alcohol.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Most people don't get that diagnosis until they have been treated for everything else, the impression I got that cluster headache literally means "unilateral, short lasting headaches with no aura/photophobia or sound sensitivity (Static X got me through[drugs-forum.com]
Ataxia
  • In cases of isopropyl ingestion, because of its strong effect on the central nervous system, a person may experience lethargy or ataxia, or may go into a coma.[mcosa.net]
  • More serious effects include: Ataxia, or the loss of control over bodily movements. Brain damage. Coma. Cornea burns and other damages. Decreased central nervous system, kidney, liver, and cardiovascular functioning.[therecoveryvillage.com]
  • After that point, people may experience slowed breathing, ataxia (a condition where one loses control of their body movements), and unconsciousness.[solutions-recovery.com]
  • These CNS manifestations can include lethargy, ataxia, and coma. In addition, isopropanol is irritating to the GI tract. Therefore, abdominal pain, hemorrhagic gastritis, and vomiting can be observed.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Oliguria
  • Renal toxicity is produced when calcium oxalate crystals precipitate in the renal tubules, causing flank pain, oliguria and acute renal failure.[lifeinthefastlane.com]

Workup

  • To the Editor: A 43-year-old man with alcoholism was admitted to the hospital with chest pain, for which the workup was unremarkable. At discharge, the patient became acutely hypotensive and delirious.[nejm.org]
Ketonuria
  • An osmol gap, ketonemia, and/or ketonuria without metabolic acidosis, along with a fruity or sweet odor on the breath and CNS depression support the diagnosis. Management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Isopropanol toxicity typically presents with CNS depression along with an increased osmol gap with ketonemia and/or ketonuria without metabolic acidosis.[thepoisonreview.com]
  • Urinalysis and urine toxicology for the presence of opiates and cocaine metabolites, ketonuria or evidence of infection.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Ketonuria
  • An osmol gap, ketonemia, and/or ketonuria without metabolic acidosis, along with a fruity or sweet odor on the breath and CNS depression support the diagnosis. Management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Isopropanol toxicity typically presents with CNS depression along with an increased osmol gap with ketonemia and/or ketonuria without metabolic acidosis.[thepoisonreview.com]
  • Urinalysis and urine toxicology for the presence of opiates and cocaine metabolites, ketonuria or evidence of infection.[clinicaladvisor.com]

Treatment

  • There have been two previous reports of hemodialysis used for treatment of isopropyl alcohol intoxication [1, 2]. Neither of these reports describes the kinetics of isopropyl alcohol removal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Knowing where, when, and why can help in treatment. The goal of treatment is to clear the alcohol from your body. Doctors will try to keep you hydrated and functioning. If you suspect IPA poisoning, seek medical help right away.[drjio.com]
  • The purpose of this book is to provide an up-to-date account of the diag nosis and treatment of all the clinically important poisons.[books.google.com]
  • The goal of treatment is to remove the alcohol from your body and to keep your organs working properly.[healthline.com]

Prognosis

  • Since coma and hypotension portend a bad prognosis and since urinary excretion is slow relative to hemodialysis removal, hemodialysis may be considered life-saving in patients comatose from isopropyl alcohol poisoning.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of alcohol poisoning includes, but not limited to: Monitoring Oxygen therapy IV fluids to prevent dehydration Kidney dialysis if methanol was ingested or in severe cases of isopropyl alcohol poisoning Once the patient passes 24 hours, the prognosis[alcoholanswers.org]
  • Treatment should include emetics ( apomorphine ) followed by gastric lavage with 4% sodium bicarbonate, saline laxative, oxygen therapy, sodium bicarbonate solution IV, and analgesics; however, the prognosis is poor.[merckvetmanual.com]
  • Please find relevant information on First Aid for Isopropyl Alcohol Overdose regarding cause, signs & symptoms, administration of first aid treatment, prognosis, preventive measures, and additional resources HERE.[dovemed.com]
  • If the person survives the first 24 hours, their prognosis is considered good. We cannot stress enough that if a person who has ingested alcohol shows any of the above symptoms of alcohol poisoning, they need to get medical care immediately.[learn-about-alcoholism.com]

Etiology

  • It is still important to consider alternative etiologies of metabolic acidosis such as lactic acidosis from profound volume depletion, sepsis, or bowel ischemia, and in diabetic patients, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • The etiology of our patient's hypotonia, hypotension, acidosis, abnormal movements and seizures is likely multifactorial.[nature.com]

Epidemiology

  • AIM: The aim of this review is to critically review the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of isopropanol poisoning.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An epidemiological study of poisoning cases reported to the national poisons information centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Human & experimental toxicology, 24 (6), 279-285. Jammalamadaka, D., & Raissi, S. (2010).[dovemed.com]
  • Epidemiology Ethanol intoxication is common in patients who seek care in emergency departments, but it’s not always their primary reason.[emsworld.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Certain topics are discussed in depth either because of their clinical importance or because recent data have become available concerning pathophysiology or treatment.[books.google.com]
  • It is a huge review, so I have chosen to focus on the following topics: Aetiology, pathophysiology and clinical features Diagnosis and investigations Treatment Disposition Here are some of the highlights… Aetiology, Pathophysiology and Clinical Features[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Pathophysiology The ingestion of any of the alcohols can result in clinical inebriation, and the strength of any alcohol’s inebriating effects is directly proportional to its molecular weight.[emsworld.com]

Prevention

  • If you or someone you know is considering suicide, get help from a crisis or suicide prevention hotline. Try the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255.[healthline.com]
  • This typically includes: Careful monitoring Prevention of breathing or choking problems Oxygen therapy Fluids given through a vein (intravenously) to prevent dehydration Use of vitamins and glucose to help prevent serious complications of alcohol poisoning[nchmd.org]
  • Department of Health and Human Services Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Last reviewed April 21, 2006. This page was last modified on : 10/28/2013 To add a locator tool to your site click here.[alcoholanswers.org]
  • If the person must lie down, make sure to turn his or her head to the side — this helps prevent choking. Try to keep the person awake to prevent loss of consciousness.[mayoclinic.org]
  • This typically includes the following: Careful monitoring of the person to prevent breathing or choking problems Oxygen therapy Fluids given through intravenously to prevent dehydration Giving vitamins and/or glucose to replenish nutrients Inserting a[newportacademy.com]

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