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Jaundice

Icteric


Presentation

  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 35-year-old male who presented with jaundice due to cholestasis along with other features of thyrotoxic crisis due to Graves' disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, this disseminated stage can also present with symptoms and signs of ocular, neurological, pulmonary, renal, musculoskeletal and digestive tract disease. We report the case of a gay man who presented with icteric hepatitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old Asian woman presented to our clinic with a sudden onset of high fever with shaking chills and jaundice, suggesting septicemia; however, following detailed investigation, the patient was diagnosed with pyelonephritis and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Overall survival was shorter among patients who presented with jaundice (Hazard ratio [HR]: 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-2.97; P CONCLUSIONS: Radical surgery for GBC resection for patients presenting with obstructive jaundice was[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Combination of fever with jaundice can cause diagnostic problem as this duo is present in many infective diseases. Timely diagnosis by simple laboratory investigations can save a lot of time and prevent morbidity and mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Loss of Appetite
  • . — Fox News, "Surgeons pull 14 roundworms from woman's bile duct," 2 May 2018 The most common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and jaundice, or yellowing of the skin or eyes. — Ellie Kaufman, CNN, "Kentucky, Indiana[merriam-webster.com]
  • . — Fox News , "Surgeons pull 14 roundworms from woman's bile duct," 2 May 2018 The most common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and jaundice , or yellowing of the skin or eyes. — Ellie Kaufman, CNN , "Kentucky, Indiana[merriam-webster.com]
  • Slow onset of painless jaundice with central abdominal ache, loss of appetite and loss of weight suggests carcinoma. The colour of urine and stools: in viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice, pale stool and darkening urine precede the jaundice.[patient.info]
  • She may also have: a high fever chills tummy pain flu-like symptoms , such as muscle and joint pain unexplained weight loss itchy skin loss of appetite tiredness and low energy nausea and vomiting right, upper abdominal pain If you think your older baby[babycenter.in]
Heart Disease
  • For example, measuring cholesterol levels helps to identify one of the risks of heart disease.[bloodbook.com]
Jaundice
  • Feeding Difficulties A baby who is not eating, wetting, or stooling well in the first few days of life is more likely to get jaundice. Sibling with Jaundice A baby with a sister or brother that had jaundice is more likely to develop jaundice.[web.archive.org]
  • The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare postoperative outcomes among jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients with resectable GBC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ‎ (1 K, 6 D) O Obstructive jaundice ‎ (5 K, 2 D) Medien in der Kategorie „Jaundice“ Folgende 21 Dateien sind in dieser Kategorie, von 21 insgesamt.[commons.wikimedia.org]
  • (see also Jaundice) 782.4[icd9data.com]
  • N Neonatal jaundice ‎ (1 C, 6 F) O Obstructive jaundice ‎ (5 C, 2 F) File nella categoria "Jaundice" Questa categoria contiene 21 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 21.[commons.wikimedia.org]
Neonatal Jaundice
  • […] to investigate the effect of massage on bilirubin levels in cases of neonatal jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Among other well-known conditions favoring neonatal jaundice, it must be emphasized that infants born by vacuum extraction are at risk of exaggerated neonatal jaundice.[doi.org]
  • Neonatal jaundice. An update for family physicians. Aust Fam Physician 1999;28:679-682.[usa.philips.com]
  • Normal neonatal jaundice typically appears between the 2nd and 5th days of life and clears with time. Neonatal jaundice is also referred to as neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and physiologic jaundice of the newborn. SOURCE: MedTerms.com.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • One of the more common issues that can typically affect newborns is a condition known as neonatal jaundice. According to Dr.[lohud.com]
Scleral Icterus
  • The presence of scleral icterus indicates a serum bilirubin of at least 3 mg/dL. The conjunctiva of the eye are one of the first tissues to change color as bilirubin levels rise in jaundice. This is sometimes referred to as scleral icterus.[en.wikipedia.org]
Pruritus
  • […] have the following symptoms and signs: Fever Chills Abdominal pain Flu-like symptoms Change in skin color Dark-colored urine and/or clay-colored stool If jaundice is not caused by an infection, you may have symptoms such as weight loss or itchy skin (pruritus[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Pruritus occurs before the patient becomes overtly jaundiced. The cause is unknown. Ask about: Weight loss - may suggest an underlying malignancy. Travel to any country where hepatitis A or any other infective cause is endemic. Alcohol consumption.[patient.info]
  • […] however, occur in many intra-hepatic illnesses and are therefore not a reliable clinical feature to distinguish obstruction from hepatic causes of jaundice.Patients also can present with elevated serum cholesterol, and often complain of severe itching or "pruritus[en.wikipedia.org]
Dark Urine
  • (illness) The patient was displaying all the symptoms of jaundice: yellow eyes and dark urine. El paciente presentaba todos los síntomas de la ictericia: ojos amarillos y orina oscura.[spanishdict.com]
  • Exchange Transfusion This should only be carried out in a Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Obtain advice from NNU fellow or NETS Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia Pale stools/ dark urine, raised conjugated bilirubin ( 15% total or 15umol/l) The causes[rch.org.au]
  • Symptoms include a yellow tinge to the skin and whites of the eyes, dark urine, and itchiness. Diagnosis of jaundice can involve a range of tests. Jaundice is treated by managing the underlying cause.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • urine Pale-colored feces Headache Confusion Swollen legs and abdomen Causes and pathology Jaundice is categorized into three different forms, depending on what the underlying cause of the bilirubin build-up is.[news-medical.net]
  • Many people with jaundice also have dark urine and light-colored stool. These changes occur when a blockage or other problem prevents bilirubin from being eliminated in stool, causing more bilirubin to be eliminated in urine.[merckmanuals.com]

Workup

  • While many of these patients will not have immediately life-threatening pathology, it is essential that the emergency clinician understands the pathophysiology of jaundice, as this will guide the appropriate workup to detect critical diagnoses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Following a broad differential workup, he was found to have a blood lead level of 129 μg/dL, and hemoglobin of 7.7 g/dL with basophilic stippling on peripheral smear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • What Is the Workup for Jaundice? The workup for jaundice includes blood tests of liver function studies, viral hepatitis studies, and urine tests.[jamanetwork.com]

Treatment

  • To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • TREATMENT There are a number of reported potential treatments available for patients with pruritis. Our poor understanding of the mechanism underlying pruritis in jaundiced patients has ensured that no single treatment has proved definitive.[doi.org]
  • , and neonates not requiring treatment for jaundice in the first week of life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: Due to the effects of massage on various laboratory parameters (including those related to jaundice) in infants and the expansion of existing studies to achieve effective and safe therapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice, this study aimed[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • INTRODUCTION: Preoperative jaundice is considered a relative contraindication to radical gallbladder cancer (GBC) resection due to poor prognosis and high postoperative morbidity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis for individuals with jaundice depends on the underlying cause of the condition. There are certain conditions that carry an excellent prognosis with individuals making a full recovery.[medicinenet.com]
  • Patients with high concentrations of bilirubin ( 100 μmol/l) or with evidence of sepsis or cholangitis are at high risk of developing complications and should be referred as an emergency because delays in treatment adversely affect prognosis.[doi.org]
  • The early recognize jaundice in malaria and appropriate treatment early member will give a better prognosis. Summary Reported one case of malaria with jaundice.[omicsonline.org]

Etiology

  • The clinical profile was observed and investigations for etiology were done. RESULTS: Total number of patients studied were 170.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • * Cholestasis, Extrahepatic/surgery Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/etiology* Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/surgery Female Humans Jaundice/diagnosis Jaundice/etiology* Jaundice/surgery Tomography, X-Ray Computed Treatment Outcome[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • History and physical examination remain important tools in evaluating the etiology of jaundice. The conjugation state of bilirubin, along with other laboratory tests judiciously ordered, can guide the provider toward category of illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of the jaundice is quite varied; although most causes are benign, each case must be investigated to rule out an etiology with significant morbidity.[uichildrens.org]

Epidemiology

  • The cases of jaundice detected during the survey were examined\interviewed by senior physicians for epidemiological information and risk factors of viral hepatitis. Other villages reported only sporadic deaths due to jaundice .[dictionary.cambridge.org]
  • DISCUSSION This epidemiologic study investigated the effects of different variables on nonphysiologic hyperbilirubinemia in a large cohort of full-term newborn infants in the first week of life.[doi.org]
  • The levels are meaningless unless they are compared with the infant’s age in hours. 3, 4, 18, 19 Total serum bilirubin levels also vary with the racial composition of the population, the incidence of breastfeeding, and other important genetic and epidemiologic[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • While many of these patients will not have immediately life-threatening pathology, it is essential that the emergency clinician understands the pathophysiology of jaundice, as this will guide the appropriate workup to detect critical diagnoses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Jaundice associated pruritis: A review of pathophysiology and treatment.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • “The bulk of cerebral palsy is due to events that occur before birth and is not preventable, but if you can identify a baby who has a rising bilirubin level and treat that baby appropriately, you can prevent cerebral palsy caused by kernicterus,” Dr.[aapnews.aappublications.org]
  • "The bulk of cerebral palsy is due to events that occur before birth and is not preventable, but if you can identify a baby who has a rising bilirubin level and treat that baby appropriately, you can prevent cerebral palsy caused by kernicterus," Dr.[web.archive.org]
  • Timely diagnosis by simple laboratory investigations can save a lot of time and prevent morbidity and mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), an independent body of experts that “ conducts scientific evidence reviews of a broad range of clinical preventive health care services (such as screening, counseling, and preventive medications[drjen4kids.com]
  • Prompt diagnosis and treatment in this case would have prevented ocular involvement. Syphilis testing should be considered in all MSM presenting with unexplained symptoms and signs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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