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JC Virus


Presentation

  • We identified four potential Spi-B-binding sites present in the promoter/enhancer elements of JCV sequences from PML variants and the non-pathogenic archetype.[doi.org]
  • This novel gray matter syndrome expands the scope of JCV clinical presentation and pathogenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • HIV infection, present in 12 of the cases, was the most common underlying condition, followed by monoclonal antibody treatment which was present in three cases. Cerebellar atrophy was detected in all except two cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the control group of patients with hepatitis C infection, none of the ten patients presented JC virus infection in the hepatic biopsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Slow Speech
  • The authors report a 36-year-old woman who presented with prolonged fever, progressive weakness, and slow speech for 2 months. Clinical features and MRI findings were compatible with PML. Qualitative PCR for JCV of CSF showed a positive result.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neck Stiffness
  • Symptoms progressed with neck stiffness, cognitive impairment, and motor aphasia. CSF was positive for JC virus. MRI showed nonspecific abnormal findings. Five days after the clinical debut, the patient died.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • INTERPRETATION: Determination of the AIJCV could be an added tool in the diagnostic workup for PML and should be included in the case definition of natalizumab-associated PML. 2014 American Neurological Association.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, if the JCV PCR is negative, a full workup for other potential etiologies such as malignancy should be completed.[aacc.org]
  • Workup In a patient with steadily progressive focal neurologic deficits consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), neuroimaging is indicated.[emedicine.com]
Liver Biopsy
  • Among the patients with liver metastasis, three out of four had a positive PCR test for JC virus in the surgical specimen and in the liver biopsy; the only patient with liver metastasis with a negative test for JC virus also presented a negative test[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Abstract OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab is a new and efficient treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVES: Using a longitudinal approach, we measured change in anti-JCV Ab results after natalizumab treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTERVENTIONS: Natalizumab treatment of MS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has become much more common with monoclonal antibody treatment for multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • JC virus carriership, duration of natalizumab treatment and past immunosuppression are known risk factors. This has allowed for calculated risk assessment for individual patients to be implemented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • We review JC virus pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis, and emphasize the importance of considering human immunodeficiency virus infection and related opportunistic infections in the differential diagnosis of new-onset isolated[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare cerebral tumor of young adults with a slow growth and a good prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Lung adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed type of lung cancer, has a poor prognosis even with combined surgery, chemotherapy, or molecular targeted therapies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • HAART improves prognosis in HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy . Neurology 52 , 623–625 (1999). 85. Shitrit, D. , Lev, N. , Bar-Gil-Shitrit, A. & Kramer, M. R.[nature.com]
  • The PML-associated death rate decreased from 2.76 deaths per 1 million population in 1992-1995 to 0.66 in 2002-2005, in large part because of fewer deaths among HIV-infected patients. [25] Prognosis In the pre-HAART era, the prognosis in patients with[emedicine.com]

Etiology

  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, in which viruses have been suggested as etiological/triggering agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • JC virus is the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a white matter demyelinating disease that mostly affects immunocompromised patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract JC virus (JCV), a ubiquitous polyoma virus that commonly infects the human, is identified as the etiologic agent for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and some malignancies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • JC virus (JCV) is the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) is the etiologic agent of the fatal demyelinating central nervous system disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which occurs in 4-7% of AIDS patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The following chapter will outline the basic virology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of BK and JC virus and discuss relevant diagnostic and treatment options. Copyright 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although JCV infects 80% of the population, there are scant epidemiological studies regarding JCV from India. There are also reports of the low prevalence of PML in patients with AIDS from India and Africa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: HIV; JC virus; epidemiology; genotypes; urine excretion[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] infarction Vasculitis Other neurologic diseases Multiple sclerosis (MS) Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis Parkinson disease Alzheimer disease Huntington disease Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy Tumor CNS lymphoma Metastatic cancer Background Epidemiology[arupconsult.com]
  • Epidemiology It was reported that 70% of adults have been exposed to this virus; however, no significant clinical syndrome has been associated with this acquisition in the majority of immunocompetent hosts 1 .[radiopaedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • We review JC virus pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis, and emphasize the importance of considering human immunodeficiency virus infection and related opportunistic infections in the differential diagnosis of new-onset isolated[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathophysiologic features of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS) in HIV-infected patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] from market due to PML risk) Ocrelizumab – multiple sclerosis (suspected risk due to medication class) Alemtuzumab – select lymphomas, relapsing MS Brentuximab – select lymphomas Mycophenolate mofetil – immunosuppression following organ transplantation Pathophysiology[arupconsult.com]
  • Very few reports have described of PML in HIV-infected patients in the setting of better immunological function (ie, CD4 counts 500/µL). [12, 13] Recurrence of PML despite many years of immune recovery in HIV has been reported. [14] Pathophysiology Progressive[emedicine.com]

Prevention

  • Furthermore, the C80A, but not the C247A, mutation prevented the nuclear localization of Vp1 in JCV genome transfected cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This recent increase in the incidence of PML raises numerous questions regarding the immunological mechanisms that control JCV replication in the CNS and thereby prevent PML.[frontiersin.org]
  • It is thought that while the antibody prevents immune cells from reaching the brain, it also blocks its immunosurveillance system.[multiplesclerosisnewstoday.com]
  • The JC virus antibody test, also called the Stratify JCV, is often performed before someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) is prescribed the drug Tysabri (natalizumab) , which is a disease-modifying drug used to prevent relapse in people with MS.[verywellhealth.com]
  • JC Virus and HIV/AIDS Certain HIV drugs may make your immune system stronger and help prevent the JC virus from causing PML. These drugs have become more common, so the number of people with HIV/AIDS who have PML has been going down.[webmd.com]

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