A labyrinthine concussion is a condition which occurs following trauma to the head and/or inner ear or can also present without well-defined radiological injury and is characterized by inner ear symptoms such as tinnitus, dizziness, and high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.
Labyrinthine concussion, also known as inner ear concussion, or commotion labyrinthitis /otitis interna vasomotoria  is characterized by a sensorineural hearing loss in the high frequencies. It follows vestibular or head trauma and may or may not be associated with vertigo. Some patients may report symptoms despite the absence of radiological evidence of labyrinthine injury  .
Typical features of labyrinthine concussion are a reversible hearing loss, dizziness, and tinnitus on the ipsilateral side, although they can also be seen on the contralateral side of the temporal bone fracture  or can be bilateral . The symptoms are noticed either immediately or within an hour or even days after the injury . Nystagmus and alteration in hearing are a prerequisite to label the condition as labyrinthine concussion . Nystagmus is initially in the ipsilateral direction, horizontal, torsional or directional and later changes direction towards the contralateral side. The hearing loss is in the high frequencies and can be either mild to moderate or even profound. Patients may witness with recruitment .
The causes of labyrinthine concussion are unknown and it is presumed that injury of the saccule and utricle occurs following trauma to their encasing bony labyrinth with resultant hemorrhage, ischemia or rupture of parts of the membranous labyrinth  .
Entire Body System
Audiologists should be aware of the greater fall risk of elderly patients and the need for follow-up hearing testing when a fall occurs, even in the absence of vestibular complaints. [journals.lww.com]
- Loss of Hair
He produced shock pulses in the fluids of the labyrinth in cats, and found loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion cells in the middle turns of cochlea. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Because of the damage to the inner ear structures, tinnitus is also frequently reported. [journals.lww.com]
- Sudden Hearing Loss
Sudden hearing loss caused by labyrinthine hemorrhage. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 ; 74 (5): 776 – 779. Google Scholar Crossref Medline 10. Flint, P Haughey, B. Etiology of Sensorineural Hearing Loss. [journals.sagepub.com]
Sudden hearing loss caused by labyrinthine hemorrhage. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2008; 74 ( 5 ): 776–779. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 10. Flint P Haughey B et al. Etiology of Sensorineural Hearing Loss. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
If your sudden hearing loss is combined with any of the following symptoms, it is an indication of traumatic brain injury, and you should call 911 or seek immediate medical care: Facial droop Numbness or paralysis on one side of the face or body Eye or [torklaw.com]
These should be suspected in cases of sudden hearing loss after digital manipulation of the external auditory canal [ 24 ]. [link.springer.com]
- Labyrinth Disease
Keywords: temporal region trauma, post-concussion symptoms, CT and MR imaging, labyrinth diseases, sensorineural hearing loss Introduction Annually, 5% of the population sustain head injuries. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Vertigo without a demonstrable fracture may also be the result of labyrinthine concussion, cupololithiasis and perilymphatic fistula. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Show Summary Details Preview Posttraumatic vertigo is commonly encountered. [oxfordindex.oup.com]
Labyrinthine Concussion and Positional Vertigo After Osteotome Site Preparation Labyrinthine Concussion and Positional Vertigo After Osteotome Site Preparation June 2004 Flanagan, Dennis DDS Implant Dentistry: Volume 13(2) June 2004 pp 129-132 Please [dentalcareuniverse.com]
Posttraumatic vertigo is commonly encountered. [oxfordmedicine.com]
Dizziness and tinnitus were two commonly accompanied symptoms. Dizziness was associated in 20 ears (32%) whereas tinnitus in 41 ears (66%). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
If a vestibular component is suspected, vision-denied, recordable nystagmus is present, initially beating towards the irritated ear. Nystagmus is typically horizontal or torsional and direction-fixed. [journals.lww.com]
- Gait Ataxia
A specialist examination for dizziness was performed with past pointing, Romberg sign, gait ataxia and moving platform posturogra-phy, helpful to quantify balance deficits. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Thalamic Pain
Get a broader perspective on your field from new chapters on Labral Tears of the Shoulder and Hip, Pubalgia, Chondral Injuries, Central Post-Stroke Pain (Thalamic Pain Syndrome), Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy, Radiation Fibrosis Syndrome, [books.google.com]
History, examination findings, audiological evaluation and psychological assessment are necessary to distinguish between labyrinthine concussion from post-concussion syndrome and whiplash syndrome, which may be concurrent . All these patients can complain of dizziness, although a migraine and headaches are more common in post-concussion syndrome while patients with whiplash syndrome may have long-standing shoulder and neck pain with tinnitus and hearing loss. Benign positional vertigo (BPPV) may be noticed in all the three groups of patients . However, patients with a labyrinthine concussion recover faster as compared to other syndromic patients.
A complete otolaryngological and neurologic examination is performed along with the tuning forks test to document hearing loss. Slight nystagmus on fistula test is indicative of oval or round window fistulae  while strong nystagmus can indicate superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Dix-Hallpike maneuver is administered as part of the examination. Caloric testing will not reveal central problems and cerebellar signs will be absent. Pure tone audiometry is helpful to document the degree and type of hearing loss while tympanometry is useful to assess the tympanic membrane and middle ear status. Hearing loss is usually sensorineural and more often in the higher frequencies . Electronystagmography (ENG) is performed to differentiate between central and peripheral vertigo .
High resolution computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bone can detect fractures which can be either transverse or longitudinal. The incidence of vestibular injury is higher with transverse fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporal bone and internal auditory canal (IAM), help to exclude associated tumors.
Treatment of benign vertigo using heels-over-head rotation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1998;107:1046-1053. 14. Itaya T, Yamamoto E, Kitano H, et al. [dentalcareuniverse.com]
The condition is usually self limited and supportive therapy and vestibular rehabilitation may be the sole treatment needed. This chapter reviews the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of labyrinthine concussion. [oxfordindex.oup.com]
Practical, clinically relevant material facilitates the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal, pain, and chronic disabling conditions. [books.google.com]
There is a discussion of labyrinthine concussion and treatments. Suggestions for prevention are to use small sizes of osteotomes first and then progress to larger sizes and to avoid neck extension head position during osteotome use. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
A poor prognosis was correlated with central auditory changes, e.g. central tinnitus or hyperacusis. Moreover, a time interval of several months between the injury and the onset of treatment also worsened the overall prognosis. [researchgate.net]
Prognosis and outcomes Post-concussion syndrome prognosis depends on a variety of factors, however for most people, symptoms resolve within one year of the inciting injury. 9 However, as we noted previously, dizziness can last for several years, ultimately [theraspecs.com]
The prognosis for hearing function is worse than for vestibular symptoms 8. In some cases, onset may be delayed by several days. These symptoms typically are short-lived and gradually subside over a period of days to weeks. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Good prognosis for recovery with medical treatment, which are steroids and antibiotics. Labyrinthitis Symptoms Vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss. [quizlet.com]
In most cases, the etiology is not discovered. One of the possible causes for sudden deafness is inner labyrinth bleeding or concussion, which were difficult to diagnose before the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Etiology was based on patient self reporting. The disease was congenital in 93 (30%) patients and acquired in 217 (70%). Etiology was unknown in 35 (11.3%) patients. [researchgate.net]
Injury Epidemiology. 2015;2(1):22. doi:10.1186/s40621-015-0055-2. 14 Lynch JM, Anderson M, Benton B, Green SS. The Gaming of Concussions: A Unique Intervention in Postconcussion Syndrome. [theraspecs.com]
Epidemiology including risk factors and primary prevention Reports of dizziness, changes in balance and/or coordination have been estimated to be 15-78% in mild TBI. [now.aapmr.org]
MIGRAINE HEADACHES Epidemiologic evidence shows a strong association between vertigo and migraine. 29 Diagnostic criteria have been proposed to provide a more specific definition of vertiginous migraine. 29 Diagnostic accuracy is important because vertiginous [aafp.org]
The pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management of these entities is discussed in detail in a clear, easy to understand format. [books.google.com]
Pathophysiology the Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998:449-451. 6. Jackler RK, Kaplan MJ. Ear, nose and throat. In: Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, eds. [dentalcareuniverse.com]
Overview The author explains the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and differential diagnosis of inner ear concussion, a common cause of auditory and vestibular symptoms after closed head injury. [medlink.com]
Explain the pathophysiology of a concussion Recognize who is most at risk of sustaining a concussion Discuss the functional anatomy of the central nervous system and balance system Recognize the differences between the cortical recovery process and central [ipta.org]
Suggestions for prevention are to use small sizes of osteotomes first and then progress to larger sizes and to avoid neck extension head position during osteotome use. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Develop a thorough, clinically relevant understanding of interventions such as physical agents and therapeutic exercise in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders that produce pain, impairment, and disability. [books.google.com]
Suggestions for prevention are to use small sizes of osteotomes first and then progress to larger sizes and to avoid neck extension head position during osteotome use. References 1. Summers RB. [dentalcareuniverse.com]
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that about 800,000 people a year are seen in emergency rooms for falls, resulting in bone fractures or head trauma (CDC, 2017 ). [journals.lww.com]
- Ulug T, Ulubil SA. Contralateral labyrinthine concussion in temporal bone fractures. J Otolaryngol. 2006;35:380–383.
- Canalis RF, Lambert PR. The ear: comprehensive otology. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. pp. 795–796.
- Choi MS, Shin S-O, Yeon JY, Choi YS, Kim J, Park SK. Clinical Characteristics of Labyrinthine Concussion. Korean J Audiol. 2013;17(1):13-17. doi:10.7874/kja.2013.17.1.13.
- Colucci D. Understanding Labyrinthine Concussion. Hearing Journal. April 2017; 70 (4): 44 - 46
- Weissman JL, Curtin HD, Hirsch BE, Hirsch WL Jr. High signal from the otic labyrinth on unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992;13(4):1183–1187
- Lindsay JR, Zajtchuk J. Concussion of the inner ear. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1970;79(4):699–709
- Rambold H, Heide W, Sprenger A, Haendler G, Helmchen C. Perilymph fistula associated with pulse-synchronous eye oscillations. Neurology. 2001 Jun 26; 56(12):1769-71.