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Laryngeal Disorder

Disease Laryngeal


Presentation

  • Problems with the larynx (voice box) generally present as hoarseness. Other common symptoms include Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), throat pain, chronic cough, shortness of breath, or the sensation of a lump in the throat.[subent.com]
  • Earlier recognition of minor laryngeal changes, as detailed in the text, should lead to earlier biopsy and tissue diagnosis, earlier and more enlightened public awareness, and earlier and, therefore, more effective utilization of present day day modalities[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Improve your interpretation of presenting symptoms with 38 new topics and 40 new images in the Differential Diagnosis section, and optimize patient care with more than 250 new figures and tables.[books.google.com]
  • Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion May present acutely More commonly intermittent inspiratory stridor which resolve spontaneously Often occur when anxious or upset Sometimes precipitated by severe cough Usually female Often patient complains of obstruction[quizlet.com]
  • The characteristics of the participants are presented in table 1 .[bmjopen.bmj.com]
Hoarseness
  • If hoarseness or any of the above symptoms lasts for two weeks or more, evaluation by an Otolaryngologist is essential to diagnose the cause of the problem.[subent.com]
  • Vocal granuloma inflammation ulcer granuloma etiology - intubation - gastroesophageal reflux - partial laryngectomy Symptoms - hoarseness 2-3 wk after extubation 35.[slideshare.net]
  • This can produce a hoarse voice, neck pain, neck fatigue, and even complete loss of the voice. In most cases the problem in muscle tension dysphonia (MTD for short) can be said to exist at the level of the neck or the larynx.[evms.edu]
  • Cancer most commonly occurs on the vocal folds causing hoarseness or shortness of breath. Some individuals may notice symptoms of increased cough and difficulty swallowing. Others may note a neck mass, throat or neck pain, or even ear pain.[throatdisorder.com]
  • This is another word for hoarseness -Disorder characterized by altered vocal quality, pitch, loudness or vocal effort that impairs communication or reduces vocal related QOL 9 cartilages Hyoid Bone -Thyroid, cricoid and epiglottic cartilages -Paired arytenoid[quizlet.com]
Stridor
  • Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion May present acutely More commonly intermittent inspiratory stridor which resolve spontaneously Often occur when anxious or upset Sometimes precipitated by severe cough Usually female Often patient complains of obstruction[quizlet.com]
  • Laryngeal trauma Most common -Car accident Others - athlete, penetrating, gun-short wound S&S location, severity - stridor, bleeding, emphysema, hemoptysis, dysphagia, crepitation - severe case coma 40. Laryngeal trauma 41.[slideshare.net]
  • In children, congenital laryngeal stridor is the most common cause of chronic stridor. What are the symptoms of congenital laryngeal stridor? The major symptom of this disorder is the stridor that is heard as the infant breathes.[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • The vast majority, however, will only have stridor without other more serious symptoms such as dyspnea (difficulty breathing).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • .- ) tobacco use ( Z72.0 ) Diseases of the respiratory system J38 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code J38 Diseases of vocal cords and larynx, not elsewhere classified 2016 2017 2018 2019 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Type 1 Excludes congenital laryngeal stridor[icd10data.com]
Difficulty Vocalizing
  • Papillomas typically cause hoarseness in the early stages, and may progress to cause significant airway difficulties. Vocal cord cysts or polyps – benign (non-cancerous or life-threatening) growths on the vocal cords.[mottchildren.org]
Regurgitation
  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) Symptoms - feel lump in the throat, chronic cough, regurgitation, heartburn Signs - arytenoid edema, TVC sweling granuloma, ulcer carcinoma 44.[slideshare.net]
Keratosis
  • Based on data from the laryngoscopic examinations, the definition of laryngeal pathologies included vocal nodules, vocal polyps, intracordal cysts, Reinke's oedema, laryngeal granuloma, sulcus vocalis, laryngeal keratosis, laryngitis, laryngeal papilloma[bmjopen.bmj.com]
Referred Otalgia
  • Carcinoma Symptoms 2-3 weeks - glottis hoarseness - supraglottis dysphagia - subglottis airway problems others - referred otalgia, chronic cough, hemoptysis, lymphadenopathy, wt. loss 38.[slideshare.net]

Workup

  • -Start there and then continue the workup CVA Vocal Cord Paralysis Dystonia Vocal tremor Parkinson's Motor Neuron disease Other- Tourette's, Myoclonus This is the most common cause of paralysis Unilateral vs Bilateral Remember the anatomy RLN vs SLN vs[quizlet.com]
  • Allergy Workup CT Sinus scan (Evaluate for subclinical chronic sinusitis) Allergy testing (Evaluate for allergies).[fauquierent.net]
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
  • Acute laryngitis Pathogen - adenovirus, influenza Morexella catarrharis Hemophilus influenza Streptococcus pneumoniae Symptoms - hoarseness cough, /- fever, malaise Sign - TVC swelling 22.[slideshare.net]

Treatment

  • This interactive workbook-style text highlights important concepts in the evaluation and treatment of voice and laryngeal disorders.[books.google.com]
  • Therapy Overview ASHA 2004 Preferred Practice Patterns for the Profession of Speech-Language Pathology Guidelines for Voice Therapy A Guideline for Formulating Goals for Voice and Laryngeal Treatment A Sample Hierarchy for Mask Focus: A Treatment Technique[bookdepository.com]
  • Nodule Treatment - voice rest - speech therapy - failed, recurrent surgery 32.[slideshare.net]
  • […] is removal to maintain voice/airway Multiple other benign tumors in small percentages Squamous Cell Carcinoma almost exclusively Family Dr's concern in dysphonic patients Gradual onset of a rough voice in a long time smoker T1-4 Treatment is surgery[quizlet.com]
  • Treatment of Laryngeal Cancer There are often different methods of treating laryngeal cancer including surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of the two. Smaller cancers may be treated in the operating room entirely through the mouth.[throatdisorder.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis [ edit ] Laryngomalacia becomes symptomatic after the first few months of life (2–3 months), and the stridor may get louder over the first year, as the child moves air more vigorously.[en.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • Although the reported findings are not specifically diagnostic of cancer of the larynx, they should draw earlier attention to the larynx as the etiological site of such symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] of paralysis Unilateral vs Bilateral Remember the anatomy RLN vs SLN vs X nerve SLN paralysis- minor vocal changes RLN paralysis- causes much more significant changes Unilateral paralysis- voice is the issue Bilateral paralysis- airway is the issue Etiology[quizlet.com]
  • Vocal granuloma inflammation ulcer granuloma etiology - intubation - gastroesophageal reflux - partial laryngectomy Symptoms - hoarseness 2-3 wk after extubation 35.[slideshare.net]
  • Cherry JD (1979) The treatment of croup: Continued controversy due to failure of recognition of historic, ecologic, etiologic and clinical perspectives. J Pediatr 94:352–354 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 2.[link.springer.com]

Epidemiology

  • We verified the relationship between smoking and laryngeal disorders, which has not been identified in previous epidemiological studies, by using representative epidemiological data.[bmjopen.bmj.com]
  • Mietens C, Liitkemeyer B, Kohler S (1984) Epidemiologic und Symptomatik der stenosie-renden Laryngotracheitis (Pseudocroup) bei 1322 stationaren Patienten in Bochum im Ver-lauf der letzten 17 Jahre.[link.springer.com]
  • Epidemiology [ edit ] Although this is a congenital lesion, airway sounds typically begin at age 4–6 weeks. Until that age, inspiratory flow rates may not be high enough to generate the sounds.[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • First, onset is gradual after which the disorder becomes chronic, suggesting some adaptation processes are involved in the development of the pathophysiology.[jneurosci.org]
  • The underlying pathophysiology is as yet poorly understood; however, the clinical scenario suggests a multifactorial nature to the disorder.[journals.lww.com]

Prevention

  • Rapidly find the answers you need with separate sections on diseases and disorders, differential diagnosis, clinical algorithms, laboratory results, and clinical preventive services, plus an at-a-glance format that uses cross-references, outlines, bullets[books.google.com]
  • In order to prevent laryngeal disorders in the future, it is necessary to establish a detailed no-smoking policy that includes hidden women smokers as well.[bmjopen.bmj.com]
  • Treat by preventing trauma, they will usually resolve spontaneously Unilateral Most often an isolated event URI /- vocal trauma Vocal hemorrhage Formation of polyp Almost all require removal Bilateral Superior aspects of anterior vocal cords Most often[quizlet.com]
  • Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can be caused by a variety of diseases or disorders that prevent movement in one vocal fold.[texasvoicecenter.com]
  • […] to prevent reinnervation by the recurrent laryngeal nerve ( Berke et al., 1999 ; Chhetri et al., 2006 ).[jneurosci.org]

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