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Lassa Virus


Presentation

  • NK cell activation involves close contact with both antigen-presenting cells and soluble factors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Camping
  • Our study provides a point prevalence of Lassa virus-infected rodents in various refugee camps in Guinea, suggesting that the risk of disease may be highest in camps further south toward the border with Liberia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On 23 March, he was admitted at the Life Camp Clinic, Abuja, Nigeria. His temperature was 39.6 C; he was drowsy and intermittently disoriented. Flu‐like symptoms and diarrhea were absent.[academic.oup.com]
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986, 83 (19):7246-7250. 10.1073/pnas.83.19.7246 PubMed Central View Article PubMed Google Scholar Yonemoto W, McGlone ML, Taylor SS: N-myristylation of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase conveys structural[virologyj.biomedcentral.com]
Ascitic Fluid
  • In addition, mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluids (MHAF) against a panel of Old and New World arenaviruses demonstrated selective cross reactivity with LASV proteins in Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cells were fixed with acetone/ethanol (95:5) and viral foci were detected by incubation with a pool of Ebola gp- and nuclear protein-specific mAbs (1:100) or Lassa-specific mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluid, followed by a HRP-conjugated anti-mouse IgG mAb[doi.org]
Intravenous Administration
  • Treatment of acute Lassa fever infections has successfully utilized intravenous administration of ribavirin, a nucleotide analogue drug, but this is not an approved use; efficacy of oral administration has not been demonstrated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • administration of the antiviral agent ribavirin. 2-4 For these reasons, Lassa fever has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations as an important threat to global health and as a disease[nejm.org]
Aspiration
  • The band containing the concentrated virus was aspirated and washed twice by pelleting in PBS (30,000 rpm), titered by plaque assay, and stored in liquid nitrogen ( 17, 18 ).[doi.org]
Tonsillar Exudate
  • During a recent outbreak of Lassa fever in Sierre Leone, a 20-year-old woman developed an acute febrile disease with tonsillar exudates and hemorrhagic manifestations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Agitation
  • The plates were covered with adhesive foil and incubated for 1 h with constant agitation.[doi.org]

Workup

HLA-A2
  • To facilitate such studies, we utilized a predictive algorithm to identify candidate HLA-A2 supertype epitopes from the LASV nucleoprotein and glycoprotein precursor (GPC) genes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Liver Biopsy
  • In a liver biopsy specimen, diffuse hepatocellular damage and focal necroses were evident, with a spectrum of liver cell change, ranging from slight vacuolizaiton to frank lysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • DDX3, a DEAD box RNA helicase, is deregulated in hepatitis virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma and is involved in cell growth control.[mdpi.com]

Treatment

  • In this regard, detection of early markers of Lassa virus (LASV) infection may improve diagnosis and ultimately successful treatment with antivirals.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment: Treatment for Lassa fever is largely symptomatic. Management of bleeding and hydration is critical, especially in hemorrhagic cases. Pain management is prescribed through the use of opiates.[stanford.edu]

Prognosis

  • AST levels parallel the amount of virus in the blood, which is a useful factor in determining prognosis. The greater the amount of virus in the blood, the more likely the associated disease will be fatal.[stanford.edu]
  • Prognosis The case-fatality rate in hospitalized patients is typically 15-20%. Shock, bleeding, neurological manifestations, high viremia, aspartate aminotransferase (AST 150 IU/L) and pregnancy confer a poor prognosis.[orpha.net]
  • Clinical Manifestations and Prognosis Lassa fever is not well studied in children, but disease manifestations range from asymptomatic to viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) leading to death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis About 15%-20% of hospitalized patients with the illness will die. It is guessed that the overall mortality is 1%, however during epidemics mortality can be as high as 50%.[encyclopedia.kids.net.au]

Etiology

  • Abstract With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • 2012 / Revised: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 3 October 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Arenaviruses ) PDF [319 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015] Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • This pattern suggests that intrinsic, i.e. genetic properties underlie such a drastic epidemiological difference (M. natalensis as a reservoir vs. M. erythroleucus as a non-reservoir species).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To confirm the epidemiological link in these cases, partial sequences derived from the diagnostic RT-PCR amplicons were used for analysis.[journals.plos.org]
  • The virtually identical viruses from the 3 patients confirmed the transmission chains suggested by the epidemiologic data.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Download references Author information Affiliations Yale Arbovirus Research Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut SONJA M. BUCKLEY , JORDI CASALS & WILBUR G.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Blood and nasal swab samples will be used to identify history of or current LASV infection and for exploratory studies into the biochemistry and pathophysiology of LASV infection.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of the fatal shock syndrome is not well understood and may involve functional changes in vascular endothelial cells, liver, adrenal gland, and other organs ( 8 ).[jvi.asm.org]
  • Pathophysiology and treatment of Lassa fever. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 134 : 231 Gibb, T. R., D. A. Norwood, Jr., N. Woollen, E. A. Henchal. 2002.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • They are included in the Category A Pathogen List established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention that groups agents with the greatest potential for adverse public health impact and mass casualties whether a situation characterized by a ill-intentioned[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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