Tennis elbow is a condition characterized by development of pain and soreness in the outer part of the elbow. It occurs when the muscles in this region are overused due to repetitive movement involving the wrist and arm.
Tennis elbow may present with pain that would radiate from outside of the elbow to the forearm and wrist. Pain would make movement of the hand difficult. Individuals with tennis elbow would also find it difficult to hold a cup, shake hands and turn a door knob. Without treatment, the pain gradually worsens and affected individuals also slowly lose the power to grasp.
Individuals who have developed tennis elbow would also experience morning stiffness in the area affected and pain from activities that utilize muscles of the affected area. Activities such as lifting and wrist extension would be painful for affected individuals.
Entire Body System
Recently, we demonstrated vascularity in the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow, but not in controls with pain-free elbows. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, radiating into the forearm, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger or both. [patient.info]
In addition to pain, you may have swelling around your elbow joint. Causes What causes tennis elbow? Overuse causes most cases of tennis elbow. It occurs when repeated movements cause swelling and pain in your joint and tendons. [familydoctor.org]
Ice helps prevent tissue damage and decreases swelling and pain. Elevate your elbow above the level of your heart as often as you can. This will help decrease swelling and pain. Prop your elbow on pillows or blankets to keep it elevated comfortably. [drugs.com]
However, you may not have any swelling if your injury is minor. On the other hand, major swelling in the area may indicate a worse injury, such as a break or tear.  Visit your doctor if you have a lot of swelling. [wikihow.com]
Apply ice packs on the elbow to reduce swelling. Avoid activities that bring on the symptoms and increase stress on the tendons. Anti-inflammatory medications and/or steroid injections may be ordered to treat pain and swelling. [tmisportsmed.com]
People whose jobs feature the types of motions that can lead to tennis elbow include plumbers, painters, carpenters and butchers. [mayoclinic.org]
Caused by repetitive motions and overuse of the elbow and arm, it often affects people with jobs requiring such motions, like carpenters, painters, and butchers. [newsmax.com]
It could equally well be called "plasterer's elbow" or "mechanic's elbow" or "painter's elbow". The most common cause is over use of the muscles which are attached to the bone at this part of the elbow. [medinfo.co.uk]
Examples of those at higher risk include assembly-line workers, carpenters, carpet-layers, construction workers, chefs, painters, butchers, landscapers, musicians, gardeners, weightlifters, and athletes who engage in other types of intensive athletic [sports-health.com]
BACKGROUND: The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire is a tool designed for self-assessment of forearm pain and disability in patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
However, lateral elbow and forearm pain may come from other causes and can easily be mistaken for lateral epicondylitis. [massagetoday.com]
Symptoms of tennis and golfer's elbow include: Pain on the outer elbow (tennis elbow) Pain on the inner elbow (golfer's elbow) Pain that starts near the elbow bone but can radiate down the forearm Pain that may start suddenly or gradually Weakness of [rushortho.com]
Signs and symptoms of an Tennis Elbow may include: Pain at or around the lateral elbow Often very tender to touch over the lateral epicondyle Pain may radiate up or down the arm Pain may worsen when reaching, gripping or lifting objects Occasionally, [tria.com]
Your doctor may also order imaging tests, such as an X-ray or MRI scan, to rule out other disorders that can cause arm pain. These include arthritis of the elbow. These tests are not usually necessary to make a diagnosis. [healthline.com]
Both of these conditions often produce arm pain. Electromyography (EMG). Your doctor may order an EMG to rule out nerve compression. Many nerves travel around the elbow, and the symptoms of nerve compression are similar to those of tennis elbow. [orthoinfo.aaos.org]
An MRI of your neck can show if arthritis is in your neck, or disk problems in your spine are causing your arm pain. Electromyography (EMG) of your elbow may show if you have any nerve problems that may be causing your pain. [urmc.rochester.edu]
Sufferers may find it difficult to fully extend or bend their arms, and will often report additional pain when lifting, gripping, or twisting with the affected arm. Pain is often reported to be more prevalent in the morning, after sleep. [squashskills.com]
Abstract Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis) is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The lack of both neovascularity and grey scale changes on ultrasound examination also substantially increase the probability that the condition is not present and should prompt the clinician to consider other causes for lateral elbow pain. [doi.org]
Concomitant intra-articular lesions (eg, loose bodies, synovitis, ulnohumeral osteophytes, chondral lesions) have been visualized during elbow arthroscopy in patients with lateral epicondylitis. [emedicine.com]
It occurs when the tendons that attach the muscle to the bone on the outside part of the elbow swell or tear. This weakens the elbow connection and puts great stress on the area. [familydoctor.org]
With severe damage and inflammation around the elbow, swelling will likely cause arm immobility. Dr. Ernest W. [draxe.com]
Individuals who have developed tennis elbow would also experience morning stiffness in the area affected and pain from activities that utilize muscles of the affected area. [symptoma.com]
Treatment of tendon disorders: is there a role for corticosteroid injection? Foot Ankle Clin. 2002;7(3):501-51312512406 PubMed Google Scholar Crossref 26. Ljung BO, Alfredson H, Forsgren S. [doi.org]
A preliminary physical examination to evaluate the extent of motion ability of the elbow, forearm and wrist would be carried out. The individual would also be asked to move his fingers in various ways to analyze the restricted mobility of the fingers. In many cases, physical examination is enough to diagnose the condition. However, certain others tests may need to be conducted to further confirm the diagnosis. X-rays and other imaging studies of the affected area may help to arrive at a definite diagnosis  .
Mild cases of tennis elbow often resolve on their own. Over the counter pain relieving medications along with physical therapy may also be beneficial. Physical therapy has strong basis in treatment of tennis elbow. The following methods of physical therapy include :
- Proper techniques: Learning and mastering the art of proper techniques while playing tennis will help reduce the incidence of tennis elbow. Players should seek help from experts to learn the proper movements that would help exert minimal pressure on the injured tissue.
- Exercises: Exercises go a long way in strengthening the muscles of the forearm. A physiotherapist would teach individuals various types of exercises that would aid in easy stretching of the forearm muscles.
- Physical support: Physical support in the form of braces would also be provided to be worn on the forearm. This would help relieve the pressure and stress on the injured tissue .
When over the counter medications and physical therapy do not seem to work then surgery may be implicated in such cases. Surgical intervention to remove the damaged tissue is conducted. However, extensive physical therapy would be extremely necessary for recovery.
The prognosis of the condition is favorable with medications and individuals do not always require surgical intervention. However, those who have undergone surgery can fully utilize their elbow and forearm post surgery.
The major cause of tennis elbow is repetitive use of the extensor muscle of the forearm . Such an activity causes muscles strain injury which in turn predisposes an individual to develop tennis elbow. The type of arm motion employed by tennis players, that of the backhand stroke, is known to be the most common cause of tennis elbow. However, the condition can also occur in other types of motions involved while using plumbing tools, driving screws and painting .
Tennis elbow is a common condition affecting about 5 in 1000 adults annually. Individuals between the age group of 35 to 55 years more commonly fall prey to the condition. Men and women are equally affected and it is a common occurrence in those with unfit forearm muscles.
Tennis elbow affects about 39.7% of tennis players. Of these, about 50 of them reported their symptoms to be debilitating and severe. The duration of playing tennis is also considered to be an important marker for development of tennis elbow. It has been reported that those players who play for more than 2 hours a day are at an increased risk of developing the condition .
Repeated use of the extensor muscles of the forearm causes tennis elbow. When these muscles are repeatedly used then small tear develops in the tendons. The tendons which attach the muscles of the forearm to the bone of the elbow undergo tear as a result of repeated peculiar kind of motion. As the condition progresses, irritation and pain develops at the site of tear.
The condition is a common occurrence amongst tennis players who frequently use the backhand stroke. Activities that involve repeated wrist movements also can lead to tennis elbow .
It is not always possible to prevent the development of tennis elbow. Individuals are advised to seek prompt treatment to prevent onset of irreversible damages. When individuals develop tennis elbow they should restrict any movement concerning the forearm and the wrist. Exercises are a great way of strengthening the muscles which can prevent injury to the forearm muscles .
In addition to tennis players, the condition also strikes carpenters, plumbers, painters and butchers. This is because such kind of people repeatedly make use of the extensor muscles of the forearm which predisposes them to develop tennis elbow. In majority of the cases, over the counter medications can help relieve the pain caused due to tennis elbow. However, when these do not work, surgery may be indicated .
Tennis elbow is characterized by development of pain in the lateral side of the upper arm. It is a common occurrence amongst tennis players. However, individuals who are in other occupation of painting and carpentry also fall prey to tennis elbow.
Repeated use of forearm muscles induces stress and causes tear in the tendons that join the muscles to the bone of the elbow. Tennis players develop the condition due to constant use of the backhand stroke while playing tennis.
Symptoms of tennis elbow include pain that originates on the lateral side of the upper arm and radiates down the wrist. Movements become difficult and individuals experience great deal of discomfort while performing activities such as stretching and pulling.
In many cases, physical examination to study the motion ability of the wrist and forearm is enough for diagnosis. However, imaging studies such as X-rays and MRI can be done to confirm the diagnosis.
Over the counter pain medications along with physical therapy helps in treating the condition. Braces in the form of physical support may also be advised to support the affected area. However, when conservative therapy does not work for more than 6 to 12 months, then surgery may be carried out to remove the damaged tissue.
- Behr CT, Altchek DW. The elbow. Clin Sports Med 1997; 16:681.
- Zeisig E, Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Extensor origin vascularity related to pain in patients with Tennis elbow. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2006; 14:659.
- Nirschl RP. The etiology and treatment of tennis elbow. J Sports Med 1974; 2:308.
- Nirschl RP. Elbow tendinosis/tennis elbow. Clin Sports Med 1992; 11:851.
- Giangarra CE, Conroy B, Jobe FW, et al. Electromyographic and cinematographic analysis of elbow function in tennis players using single- and double-handed backhand strokes. Am J Sports Med 1993; 21:394.
- Aoki M, Wada T, Isogai S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of refractory tennis elbows and their relationship to surgical treatment. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2005; 14:172.
- Kibler WB. Clinical biomechanics of the elbow in tennis: implications for evaluation and diagnosis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26:1203.
- Bisset L, Beller E, Jull G, et al. Mobilisation with movement and exercise, corticosteroid injection, or wait and see for tennis elbow: randomised trial. BMJ 2006; 333:939.
- Walther M, Kirschner S, Koenig A, et al. Biomechanical evaluation of braces used for the treatment of epicondylitis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2002; 11:265.
- Snyder-Mackler L, Epler M. Effect of standard and Aircast tennis elbow bands on integrated electromyography of forearm extensor musculature proximal to the bands. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17:278.