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Laxative

Other Laxatives


Presentation

  • During her physical examination, the patient was confused, drowsy, and she presented hyposthenia in her upper and lower limbs, symmetric and diffuse moderate hyporeflexia, and her temperature was 37.8 degrees C.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 33-month-old girl presented with partial thickness burn to the buttocks and perineum, which were suspected to be caused by child abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case of oesophageal obstruction after ingestion of a granular laxative in a 91-year-old man is presented. There was no predisposing oesophageal disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A young woman with a previous history of anorexia nervosa presented with severe finger clubbing. Urine samples intermittently contained significant amounts of aspartylglucosamine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with weakness and hypokalaemia due to excessive use of laxatives.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rigor
  • CONCLUSION: When considering a recommendation for a fiber supplement regimen to treat and/or prevent constipation, it is important to consider which fibers have the physical characteristics to exert a laxative effect, and which fiber supplements have rigorous[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Diarrhea
  • The management of patients with chronic watery diarrhea is discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When pretreated with indomethacin, sennoside A neither decreased the AQP3 expression nor induced diarrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When also taking into consideration patients tending to develop diarrhea 75% of patients are non-responsive to SLT.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 46-year-old man with chronic diarrhea underwent exhaustive investigations, including laparotomy, but a definitive diagnosis could not be made.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bisacodyl: Cramps Diarrhea Senna; Cascara sagrada: Abdominal pain Bloody stools Collapse Diarrhea Phenolphthalein: Abdominal pain Collapse Diarrhea Dizziness Drop in blood pressure Low blood sugar Rash Sodium phosphate: Abdominal pain Collapse Diarrhea[medlineplus.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • Three children discontinued treatment for refusal due to bad taste of the product (1 PEG-only, 2 PEG-EL); 1 (PEG-EL) for an adverse effect (abdominal pain).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These patients reported a stool frequency of 5.6 4.3 bowel motions/week, only 21 patients reported CONCLUSIONS: The reporting of frequent and loose stools with abdominal pain and/or bloating is common in patients with slow transit constipation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract When patients complain of recurrent functional bowel disorders consisting of alterations in intestinal transit with abdominal pain or discomfort, treatment is purely symptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bisacodyl: Cramps Diarrhea Senna; Cascara sagrada: Abdominal pain Bloody stools Collapse Diarrhea Phenolphthalein: Abdominal pain Collapse Diarrhea Dizziness Drop in blood pressure Low blood sugar Rash Sodium phosphate: Abdominal pain Collapse Diarrhea[medlineplus.gov]
Abdominal Cramps
  • People who increase their fiber may abruptly suffer abdominal cramping, bloating, or gas. Gradually increase fiber intake.[webmd.com]
  • Consumption can cause gas, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, and The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics warns against consuming more than 50 grams of sorbitol a day.[well.blogs.nytimes.com]
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea are the most common symptoms of a laxative overdose. Dehydration and electrolyte (body chemicals and minerals) imbalance are more common in children than adults.[medlineplus.gov]
Chronic Diarrhea
  • A 46-year-old man with chronic diarrhea underwent exhaustive investigations, including laparotomy, but a definitive diagnosis could not be made.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Below is a list of the problems that you will encounter if you begin the treacherous road of laxative abuse: Severe abdominal pain Chronic Diarrhea: After repeated use of laxatives you eventually lose control of your rectum and may find a pile of you[healthyplace.com]
  • Chronic diarrhea of unknown origin. Gastroenterology 1980; 78: 264–71 PubMed Google Scholar 34. Harris A, Buchanan GN. Melanosis coli is reversible. Colorectal Dis 2009; 11: 788–9 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 35.[doi.org]
  • Chronic diarrhea is a common symptom of both. However constipation can be a problem too.[health.com]
Tachycardia
  • .), hypotension, tachycardia, postural dizziness and syncope; however, laxative abuse can lead to potentially fatal acid-base and electrolyte imbalances.[en.wikipedia.org]
Hyporeflexia
  • During her physical examination, the patient was confused, drowsy, and she presented hyposthenia in her upper and lower limbs, symmetric and diffuse moderate hyporeflexia, and her temperature was 37.8 degrees C.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Liver Biopsy
  • Liver biopsy showed abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions in phagocytic cells. The patient was found to be abusing senna laxative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • According to the primary efficacy definition (based on individual treatment weeks), 61% of PEG treatment weeks versus 22% of the placebo weeks were successful (P 0.001).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Studies comparing prophylaxis versus treatment of lower gastrointestinal tract paralysis have not been performed yet. STUDY: We designed 3 sequential phases of 4 months each: observational phase, treatment phase, and prophylaxis phase.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Five patients withdrew consent before starting treatment. Three children discontinued treatment for refusal due to bad taste of the product (1 PEG-only, 2 PEG-EL); 1 (PEG-EL) for an adverse effect (abdominal pain).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Dutch clinical guidelines recommend that a standard laxative treatment (SLT) should be prescribed concomitantly when starting opioid treatment to prevent opioid-induced constipation (OIC).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Compared to all other laxatives, PEG achieved more treatment success, but results on defecation frequency were conflicting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Extensive investigations failed to establish the etiology, but intestinal perfusion (carried out in four of the five patients) revealed secretion or abnormally low absorption of water and electrolytes in the jejunum and abnormally low absorption in the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Published reports of clinical trials involving polyethylene glycol 3350, together with published articles examining the epidemiology, demographics, etiology, evaluation, and management of chronic constipation, were identified[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Studies on the etiology of chronic constipation have not been reported, but several lines of information converge on two key contributors. One is the sedentary lifestyle that has become increasingly prevalent.[itmonline.org]
  • The role of chronic constipation, diarrhea, and laxative use in the etiology of large-bowel cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study. Dis Colon Rectum 1988; 31: 507–12 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 80.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • OBJECTIVES: Constipation and laxative use have been hypothesized to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but existing epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Published reports of clinical trials involving polyethylene glycol 3350, together with published articles examining the epidemiology, demographics, etiology, evaluation, and management of chronic constipation, were identified[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Definitions, epidemiology, and impact of chronic constipation. Rev Gastroenterol Disord 2004; 4 Suppl. 2: S3–10 PubMed Google Scholar 32. Primrose WR, Capewell AE, Simpson GK.[doi.org]
  • Xiao-Jiao Yang, Mei Zhang, Hong-Ming Zhu, Zhe Tang, Dan-Dan Zhao, Bang-Yi Li and Amanda Gabriel, Epidemiological study: Correlation between diet habits and constipation among elderly in Beijing region, World Journal of Gastroenterology, 22, 39, (8806)[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Keywords absorption castor oil constipation drugs laxatives pathophysiology pharmacology physiology secretion transport Authors and affiliations Francesco Capasso 1 Timothy S. Gaginella 2 1.[doi.org]
  • Amol Sharma and Satish Rao, Constipation: Pathophysiology and Current Therapeutic Approaches, Gastrointestinal Pharmacology, 10.1007/164_2016_111, (59-74), (2017). S. Christodoulides, E. Dimidi, K. C. Fragkos, A. D. Farmer, K. Whelan and S. M.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • CONCLUSION: The findings of this study support the benefits of a standardized laxative protocol for prevention of constipation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: This pilot study indicates that optimal laxative therapy (SLT) might not be effective and feasible for the prevention and treatment of OIC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The severity of obstruction prevented endoscopic clearance and the patient required gastrotomy and manual disimpaction of the lower oesophagus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: While it is well known that use of opioids often cause constipation, little is known about the information given to patients regarding this potential side-effect and their use of laxatives to prevent it.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epsom salt laxatives are used to promote, not prevent, digestion and the passing of stool.[livestrong.com]

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