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Legionella Meningoencephalitis


Presentation

  • Focus on the practical guidance you need with the aid of a new, more templated format in which basic science content has been integrated within clinical chapters, and all procedural content has been streamlined for online presentation and paired with[books.google.com]
  • Furthermore, Legionella meningoencephalitis may present with findings on magnetic resonance imaging previously thought to be characteristic of herpes encephalitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • - clinical presentation may be altered by prior use of antibiotics.[rch.org.au]
  • Finding the exact antibody in the blood known to fight the Legionella pneumophila proves that it is present.[thelegionnaireslawyer.com]
  • […] fever, headache, altered mental status, neck stiffness there may be variations in clinical presentation due to the type of pathogen, patient age, host immune status Bacterial causes of meningitis by age 1 month Group B streptococcus (GBS), E. coli, L[medbullets.com]
Fever
  • The second disease is Pontiac fever. Pontiac fever is a milder respiratory illness without pneumonia. Symptoms of Pontiac fever usually start about 24 to 72 hours after exposure.[protect.iu.edu]
  • Rhinovirus Rickettsial fevers, tickborne (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tickborne typhus fever) Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rotavirus infection (see Gastroenteritis) Rubeola (see Measles) S Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) [* NOTIFY INFECTION[ww2.mc.vanderbilt.edu]
  • In addition, where Pontiac fever ends and Legionnaires’ disease begins is not well defined, so in some cases people suspected of having the former ailment might actually have a mild case of the latter and vise versa. Pontiac Fever vs.[thelegionnaireslawyer.com]
  • The non-pneumonic illness – also known as Pontiac Fever – includes flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, malaise, chills, and muscle pain.[iamat.org]
Malaise
  • The non-pneumonic illness – also known as Pontiac Fever – includes flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, malaise, chills, and muscle pain.[iamat.org]
  • We describe a case of pneumonia caused by C. pneumoniae and associated with meningoencephalitis.An 18-year-old man who had been in good health had malaise, a high temperature, and a nonproductive cough.[nejm.org]
  • […] four to six days after their initial onset: Chest pain Cough that does not produce much sputum or mucus (dry cough) Loss of appetite Coughing up blood Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain Fever General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling ( malaise[thelegionnaireslawyer.com]
  • Symptoms of viral encephalitis The symptoms of viral encephalitis include: high temperature headache sensitivity to light (photophobia) general malaise stiff neck stiff back vomiting changes to personality confusion memory loss (amnesia) seizures paralysis[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • […] asthma; Reye's syndrome or fatty liver encephalopathy, is associated w/ ASA use in children w/ viral infections Risk factors for meningitis Recent ear infection, Sinusitis, Immunodeficiencies, Recent neurosurgical procedures, & sick contacts FEVER, malaise[quizlet.com]
Chills
  • The non-pneumonic illness – also known as Pontiac Fever – includes flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, malaise, chills, and muscle pain.[iamat.org]
  • Symptoms Symptoms of Legionellosis include: Fever Chills Lack of energy Cough Muscle aches Headache Loss of appetite Diarrhea and/or vomiting Transmission Legionellosis infection is transmitted when a person breathes water droplets from the air (i.e.,[protect.iu.edu]
  • […] dry cough) Loss of appetite Coughing up blood Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain Fever General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling ( malaise ) Headache Joint pain Loss of energy Muscle aches and stiffness Problems with balance Shaking chills[thelegionnaireslawyer.com]
  • Legionnaires' disease is a serious lung infection (pneumonia) with chills, high temperature (fever) and muscle pains. You get the infection by breathing in droplets of water which contain legionella germs (bacteria) from contaminated water systems.[patient.info]
  • […] health care workers) US typical influenza season Highly contagious orthomyxovirus transmitted by droplet nuclei; 3 types: A,B,C; Subtypes of A are classified by glycoproteins (hemagglutinin & neuraminidase, eg H5N1) Abrupt onset of fevers, myalgias, chills[quizlet.com]
Sepsis
  • Inside, you’ll find totally updated coverage of vital topics, such as coagulation and apoptosis in certain critical care illnesses, such as acute lung injury and adult respiratory distress syndrome; sepsis and other serious infectious diseases; specific[books.google.com]
  • Sepsis can also affect the blood clotting, leading to bleeding, and it makes the blood pressure fall. Severe sepsis and septic shock are dangerous conditions with a high risk of fatality.[patient.info]
  • […] meningitidis (meningococcal) known or suspected Streptococcus pneumoniae M. tuberculosis Other diagnosed bacterial (if not multidrug-resistant organism or noted elsewhere in this section) Unknown pathogen, suspected bacterial Meningococcal disease: sepsis[ww2.mc.vanderbilt.edu]
  • Arch Int Med 110 : 856–864 21 Ribeiro AM and Moreira JL (1999) Sepsis in childhood: epidemiological profile and microbiologic diagnosis. J Pediatr (Rio J) 75 : 39–44 22 Guerin JM et al. (1987) Severe diarrhea in pneumococcal bacteremia.[nature.com]
Headache
  • The non-pneumonic illness – also known as Pontiac Fever – includes flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, malaise, chills, and muscle pain.[iamat.org]
  • Patients with the usual form of meningitis (bacterial or viral) get very ill quickly and usually develop fever, headache, and neck stiffness.[moldbacteria.com]
  • Patients present with headache and papilledema, while CSF is unremarkable.[karger.com]
  • Volume 1 covers the visual sensory system, the autonomic nervous system, the ocular motor system, the eyelid, facial pain and headache, and nonorganic disease. Volume 2 covers tumors, the phacomatoses, and vascular disease.[books.google.es]
  • Ten days later, he had a headache, double vision, and paresthesias of the right side of the body, predominantly in the upper and the lower limbs. On admission to the hospital, he was somnolent and febrile, with a rigid neck.[nejm.org]
Confusion
  • These primary symptoms can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, photophobia, confusion and irritability. Some of these classic signs and symptoms cannot be detected in an infant in whom lethargy and irritability are important signs.[ehagroup.com]
  • The next day he arrived at a New Orleans hospital disoriented, confused and combative.[consumer.healthday.com]
  • Symptoms of viral encephalitis The symptoms of viral encephalitis include: high temperature headache sensitivity to light (photophobia) general malaise stiff neck stiff back vomiting changes to personality confusion memory loss (amnesia) seizures paralysis[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • In other patients, the symptoms can be severe and begin suddenly with fever, headache and stiff neck accompanied by some combination of other symptoms: decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to bright light, confusion and sleepiness.[dph.illinois.gov]
  • Pronunciation Specialty Infectious disease Symptoms Fever, vomiting, stiff neck, seizures, poor coordination, confusion Causes Naegleria fowleri Differential diagnosis Meningitis Pougnard, C.; Catala, P.; Drocourt, J.[en.wikipedia.org]
Altered Mental Status
  • mental status, neck stiffness there may be variations in clinical presentation due to the type of pathogen, patient age, host immune status Bacterial causes of meningitis by age 1 month Group B streptococcus (GBS), E. coli, L. monocytogenes prominent[medbullets.com]
  • The woman was admitted to a hospital on Sept. 28 with nausea, vomiting, neck stiffness and "altered mental status." She died Oct. 2 and an autopsy revealed amebic meningoencephalitis.[consumer.healthday.com]
Stroke
  • Risk factors for stroke and efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: analysis of pooled data from five randomized controlled trials. ‏ الصفحة 1246 - Barnett HJ, Taylor DW, Eliasziw M et al.[books.google.com]
  • It can impede blood vessels in the brain and lead to stroke and brain impairment. It also harms other body parts.[omicsonline.org]

Workup

Pseudomonas
  • Consider adding an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone for coverage of resistant organisms (Pseudomonas) until lab sensitivites identify the best single agent.[quizlet.com]
  • […] pneumonia J123Human metapneumovirus pneumonia J1289Other viral pneumonia J129Viral pneumonia, unspecified J13Pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae J14Pneumonia due to Hemophilus influenzae J150Pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae J151Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas[cms.gov]
Candida
  • "The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse" Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis jiroveci, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Tuberculosis, CMV, Cryptosporidium parvum Indication & tx for PJP prophylaxis[quizlet.com]
  • Clin Infect Dis 27 : 702–710 50 Krause R et al. (2001) Role of candida in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.[nature.com]

Treatment

  • Constructed from Skeletal Muscle 759 Multicenter Clinical Trials 767 87 Cultured Cardiomyocytes 775 88 Myocardial Regeneration with Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells 785 89 Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in Patients with Emphysema 789 90 Pulmonary Endarterectomy Treatment[books.google.com]
  • Dose Adjustments Resistant organism development AND no response to treatment: Treatment should be modified.[drugs.com]
  • Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • Treatment The treatment again depends on the causative organism.[ehagroup.com]
  • Coverage includes major updates on genetics of diseases, new diagnostic techniques, and the newest treatment options. This third volume covers degenerative, metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, and demyelinating diseases.[books.google.es]

Prognosis

  • FLAIR : hyperintense DWI : hyperintense ADC: hypointense T1 C (Gd) : linear cranial nerve enhancement ring enhancement (abscess) heterogeneous if extensive inflammation MR spectroscopy : allows differentiation between abscess from tumor Treatment and prognosis[radiopaedia.org]
  • What is the outlook (prognosis)? Legionnaires' disease is a serious illness. Even if you were previously fit and well, you have about a 1 in 10 chance of dying if you get Legionnaires' disease.[patient.info]
  • […] bacterial pneumonia; Disseminated mycobacterial or funal infection; Invasive cervical cancer Time course of HIV infections Retrovirus, Targets and destroys CD4 T lymphocytes Indicates degree of immunosuppression; guides tx and prophylaxis & helps determine prognosis[quizlet.com]

Etiology

  • Naegleria fowleri is the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease.[asu.pure.elsevier.com]
  • Depending on their ages, individuals are also predisposed to certain etiologic agents. Incubation Period The incubation period depends on the causative agent.[ehagroup.com]
  • In search of encephalitis etiologies: diagnostic challenges in the California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 36(6): 731-42. PubMed Hunt G. Meningitis and encephalitis in adolescents.[arupconsult.com]
  • Rhombencephalitis refers to inflammatory diseases affecting the hindbrain ( brainstem and cerebellum ) and has a wide variety of etiologies including infection, autoimmune disease, and paraneoplastic syndrome, with Listeria monocytogenes being cited as[radiopaedia.org]
  • An epidemic of unknown etiology in a health department. I. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects . Am. J. Epidemiol. 107 : 149 – 160 . 7. Institute of Medicine . 1992 . Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States .[asmscience.org]

Epidemiology

  • Harrison Abstract The aims of this work were to assess (i) the intercentre reproducibility and epidemiological concordance of amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis for epidemiological typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and (ii) the[link.springer.com]
  • Clinical and epidemiologic aspects . Am. J. Epidemiol. 107 : 149 – 160 . 7. Institute of Medicine . 1992 . Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States . National Academy Press , Washington, D.C. . 8. Kuhn , T. S. 1996 .[asmscience.org]
  • Epidemiology of Meningitis Infection of the meninges can be by direct infection but more probably is secondary to an ascending infection from another part of the body.[ehagroup.com]
  • J Med Virol 56 : 280–285 42 Ndambi R et al. (1999) Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of the Ebola virus epidemic in Mosango, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995.[nature.com]
  • […] suspected (see Gastroenteritis) E Ebola virus [ *NOTIFY INFECTION PREVENTION ASAP* ] Echovirus (see Enteroviral infections) Encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (see specific etiologic agents) Enterococcus species (see Multidrug-resistant organisms if epidemiologically[ww2.mc.vanderbilt.edu]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Neurotherapeutics. 2016; 13(3): 493-508. PubMed George BP, Schneider EB, Venkatesan A.[arupconsult.com]
  • The pathophysiology of amoebic meningoencephalitis is still an enigma, and of late, the mechanisms appear to be shifting from agent-based pathogenic potential to host-based immunogenic response. [4] A short summary of the features based on the published[neurologyindia.com]
  • Leakage from damaged pial vessels, leading to focal extravasation of the contrast agent into the CSF adjacent to the brain, is the most likely pathophysiological explanation for leptomeningeal enhancement on FLAIR images [ 15 ], indicating blood-CSF barrier[karger.com]

Prevention

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. Gary W.[books.google.com]
  • الصفحة 1607 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 1994 Revised Classification System for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Children Less Than 13 Years of Age, MMWR, 43, 1-19, No. ‏[books.google.com]
  • INFECTION PREVENTION ASAP* ] Croup (see Respiratory infections in infants and young children) Cryptococcosis Cryptosporidiosis (see Gastroenteritis) Cytomegalovirus infection, neonatal or immunosuppressed D Diarrhea, acute-infective etiology suspected[ww2.mc.vanderbilt.edu]
  • Prevention Check if your planned accommodation has had an outbreak of Legionellosis in the past. Ask what prevention measures the company is taking to prevent infection.[iamat.org]

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